*Eyes open, head is rotated from side to side. Positive response is contraversive conjugate deviation of eyes.

From Lowrey (1986), by permission.

tendency for all extremities to be flexed in an attitude of the fetal position. There is usually good tone throughout the body, and this is particularly exemplified by the resistance to extension of all extremities. Full details of the various neonatal reflexes will not be provided here.

Figure 14.3 outlines a clinical estimation of gestational age at birth.

Fig. 14.2 Apgar test

Score Heart rate

Respiratory effort

Muscle tone



2 Over 100

Strong cry

Good, active



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