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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Age from birth (years)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Age from birth (years)

Figure 10.9 Testicular volume, birth to 16 years. From Zachmann et al. (1974) and Goodman and Gorlin (1983), by permission.

Testicular Volume Age

Figure 10.10 Testicular volume from bone age, 4 to 16 years. From Waaler et al. (1974), by permission.

Figure 10.10 Testicular volume from bone age, 4 to 16 years. From Waaler et al. (1974), by permission.

Birth 2000

Figure 10.11 Testicular volume of Japanese males, birth to 16 years, compared to Swiss 50th percentile. From Zachmann et al. (1974); adapted from Matsuo et al. (2000).

Figure 10.11 Testicular volume of Japanese males, birth to 16 years, compared to Swiss 50th percentile. From Zachmann et al. (1974); adapted from Matsuo et al. (2000).

Chapter 10 Genitalia Testicular Descent

Definition Position of the testicle in its descent from the inguinal canal into the scrotum.

Landmarks The base of the penis and the superior margin of the testicle are identified. The testicle is gently retracted away from the body. The distance from the base of the penis to the superior margin of the testicle is measured.

Position This measurement is best taken when the patient is resting in the supine position.

Instrument A plastic ruler or a tape-measure may be used.

Remarks Values for testicular descent are shown in relation to age in Fig. 10.12a and by Tanner stage in Fig. 10.12b.

Head Circumfrance Ruler
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16+ Age (years)
Anal Circumference

Tanner stage

Figure 10.12 Testicular descent measurement by age (a) and by Tanner stage (b); symbol indicates mean measurement, and vertical line indicates two standard deviations from the mean. Open circles, right testicle; filled circles, left testicle. Adapted from Sack et al. (1993).

Tanner stage

Figure 10.12 Testicular descent measurement by age (a) and by Tanner stage (b); symbol indicates mean measurement, and vertical line indicates two standard deviations from the mean. Open circles, right testicle; filled circles, left testicle. Adapted from Sack et al. (1993).

Chapter 10 Genitalia Anal Placement

Definition The position of the anus in relation to the vaginal introitus or beginning of scrotal tissue.

Landmarks The distance between the posterior aspect of the introitus of the vagina (fourchette) in the female, or the end of scrotalized skin in the male, and the anterior border of the anal opening is measured.

Position The small infant should be in a supine position with the hips and knees held flexed, allowing the gluteal folds to open. A child or older individual can bend forward at the hips or be prone with the legs drawn up toward the abdomen, opening the perineal area for measurement.

Remarks Normal measurements are presented in Fig. 10.13 and 10.14. In the male an abnormality in anal placement usually presents as an anus that is anteriorly placed on the perineum, or as a skin-covered anus; in the female it is generally as a persistent fistula between the rectum and vagina or as an aberrant placement of the anus, with no space or too little space between the anus and the vaginal introitus.

Anal Circumference
Figure 10.13 Anus-to-fourchette (AF) distance, related to body length in newborns, both sexes. From Callegari et al. (1987), by permission.
Fig. 10.14 Clinical measurements
Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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