Info

Total Upper Limb (Hand and Arm) Length

Pitfalls The patient with contractures or limitations of full extension (as in achondroplasia) may give falsely low values unless the tape is worked along the contracture.

Total Upper Limb (Hand and Arm) Length

Definition Length of the whole arm (the arm and hand combined).

Landmarks Measure between the acromion (the most prominent posterior lateral bony prominence of the shoulder joint) and the tip of the middle finger (Fig. 8.4).

Instruments Tape-measure or calipers.

Position Stand the patient erect with arms hanging loosely down at the side, parallel to the body.

Alternative In patients who cannot stand, the arms can be measured while the patient lies down with the arms parallel to the body. Measurement of arm length by X-ray is more accurate, but the limb must be positioned properly.

Remarks The arms account for approximately 11 percent of the total body weight in the age group 0.5-3.0 years in boys (10 percent in girls) and for 13 percent of total body weight in the age group 3-13 years in boys (16 percent in girls) (Figs. 8.5 and 8.6)

Figure 8.4 Measuring total upper limb length.

Figure 8.4 Measuring total upper limb length.

Gestational age (weeks)

Figure 8.5 Total upper limb length at birth. From Sivan et al. (1983) and Merlob et al. (1984a), by permission.

Gestational age (weeks)

Figure 8.5 Total upper limb length at birth. From Sivan et al. (1983) and Merlob et al. (1984a), by permission.

Figure 8.6 Total upper limb length, both sexes, 4 to 16 years. From Martin and Saller (1962), by permission.

Figure 8.6 Total upper limb length, both sexes, 4 to 16 years. From Martin and Saller (1962), by permission.

In individuals with contractures, a tape-measure should be worked along the limb.

Dislocated shoulders or hyperextensible joints can give abnormally long measurements.

Upper Arm Length

Definition Length of the upper arm or proximal (rhizomelic) segment of the arm.

Landmarks Measure from the acromion (the most prominent posterior lateral bony prominence of the shoulder joint) along the posterior lateral aspect of the arm until reaching the distal medial border of the olecranon

Instruments Tape-measure or calipers.

Position Stand the patient erect, with arms held loosely at the side and elbows slightly bent.

Figure 8.7 Measuring upper arm length.

Figure 8.7 Measuring upper arm length.

Alternative The patient may lie in bed, supine, or prone, with the arms at the side of the body and elbow slightly bent. Measurement of upper arm length by X-ray is more accurate, but the limb must be positioned properly.

Remarks Typical values per upper arm length from birth to age 16 years are presented in Figs. 8.8-8.10.

Pitfalls A dislocated shoulder will give an abnormally long measurement.

Figure 8.8 Upper arm length, both sexes, at birth. From Merlob et al. 1984a), by permission.

Figure 8.8 Upper arm length, both sexes, at birth. From Merlob et al. 1984a), by permission.

Figure 8.9 Upper arm length, males, 4 to 16 years. From Malina et al. 1973), by permission.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment