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Introduction

With the advent of prenatal diagnosis, standards for intrauterine growth have become important. Ultrasound measurements of the fetus help not only to establish the gestational age but also to determine whether the fetus is growing in a normal way. Comparison of measurements in different areas of the body can establish normal proportions in the fetus, in the same manner as postnatal measurements. Comparisons over time can establish normal or abnormal growth patterns, which often allow specific diagnosis and improved pregnancy management.

Accurate norms for various body structures at different stages of gestation are available. However, the quality and accuracy of the measurements in a particular case are very much a function of the experience of the technician and the quality of the equipment used. Most ultrasound departments, with a large volume of prenatal diagnostic studies, establish their own age-related norms.

Choice of Measurement in Relation to Gestational Age

At different gestational ages, different measurements are most accurate. Studies should be adapted to the gestational age and the particular circumstances of the case. Measurements can be made and compared with the appropriate standards, given in Figures 15.1-15.23.

From 7 to 10 weeks:

From 10 to 14 weeks:

From 15 to 28 weeks:

After 28 weeks

Figure 15.1 Positions of ultrasound measurements.

BPD Outer orbit

Inner orbit Clavicle

Humerus

Ulna Radius

Femur Fibula Tibia

Figure 15.1 Positions of ultrasound measurements.

Inner orbit Clavicle

Humerus

Ulna Radius

Femur Fibula Tibia

Head

Head

Fig. 15.2 Fetal biometric data from ultrasound measurements

Week

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

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