## Info

Figure 8.13 Forearm length, males, 4 to 16 years. From Roche and Malina (1983), by permission.

Figure 8.14 Forearm length, females, 4 to 16 years. From Roche and Malina (1983), by permission.

Figure 8.14 Forearm length, females, 4 to 16 years. From Roche and Malina (1983), by permission.

### Chapter 8 Limbs Carrying Angle

Definition The carrying angle is the angle subtended by the forearm on the humerus (the deviation of the forearm relative to the humerus or the angle at the elbow joint).

Landmarks Draw an imaginary line (A) through the axis of the upper arm extending down to a distance equivalent to the hand. Draw a second imaginary line (B) through the axis of the forearm and hand. The angle between these two lines, at the elbow, is the carrying angle (Fig. 8.15).

Instruments A goniometer, or "eyeball estimate" of the angle between the two lines.

Position Stand the patient with the shoulders hanging loosely, the palms facing anteriorly, the hands in the same plane as the body, and the arms fully extended. The elbow is extended and the forearm supinated.

Alternative The patient may lie supine with the upper arm parallel to the body and the lower arm supinated, elbow extended, and the back of the hand against the bed. Photograph the patient in one of the above positions and measure the angle from the photograph.

Remarks Normal values for carrying angle are shown in Fig 8.16. The carrying angle is usually greater in women than in men and increases slightly with age. The normal range is between 7 and 22 degrees with a mean of 14 degrees in the male and 16 degrees in the female. The carrying

Male

Carrying angle

Figure 8.16 Carrying angle norms. From Atkinson and Elftman (1945), by permission.

## Pregnancy And Childbirth

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