I1

] Abnormal for female

Carrying angle

Figure 8.16 Carrying angle norms. From Atkinson and Elftman (1945), by permission.

angle may be altered by abnormalities of the elbow joint. Sex chromosome aneuploidy often affects the carrying angle.

Pitfalls If there is limited extension of the elbow or if the arm cannot be fully supinated, the carrying angle will be difficult to assess. Radial head dislocation should not affect the carrying angle.

Hand Length

Definition Total length of the hand.

Landmarks Measure from the distal crease at the wrist to the tip of the middle finger (Fig. 8.17).

Instruments Tape-measure, calipers, or clear ruler.

Figure 8.17 Measuring hand length.

Position The wrist is held in neutral position, and the fingers are fully extended. The measurement is taken on the palmar aspect of the hand.

Alternative Draw a line around the hand and measure from an estimated point where the wrist begins.

Remarks Some patients have multiple wrist creases; choose the most distal crease.

Normal values are shown in Fig 8.18-8.20. There are no significant differences in hand length between males and females.

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