Definition Distance from the root of the nose (nasion) to the lowest median landmark on the lower border of the mandible (menton or gnathion). Lower two-thirds of craniofacies (Fig. 7.17).
Landmarks Measure from the root of the nose (nasion) to the inferior border of the mandible (menton or gnathion) in a vertical plane (Figs. 7.1 and 7.17).
Instruments Spreading calipers give the most reliable measurements. A tape-measure can be used but should be held parallel to the sagittal axis of the face, in front of the tip of the nose.
Position Frankfort horizontal, with the facial profile in the vertical. The mouth should be closed with the teeth in occlusion.
Alternative Measurements may be obtained from lateral radiographs of the head.
Remarks The facial height chart for children age 4-16 years is provided in Fig. 7.18. This measurement is used to calculate the length-to-width ratio of the head (facial index).
Pitfalls Micrognathia or prognathism can make it difficult to find the lower landmark. Prominence of the nasal bridge with a high nasal root may alter the definition of the upper landmark.
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