Contents

1 Introduction 3 Introduction 3 Structure of the Book 4

2 Measurement 5

Why Measurements Are Useful 5 Anthropometry 7

Useful Parameters and Landmarks 10

Measurements in Dysmorphology and Clinical Genetics 11

3 Proportional Growth and Normal Variants 13 Body Proportions 13

4 Height and Length 15 Introduction 15 Total Body Length 15 Standing Height 22 Crown-Rump Length 32 Sitting Height 33

Mid-Parental Height (Used to Access Child's Growth Pattern) 37

Prediction of Height 40

Height Velocity 43

Expected Increments 47

Bibliography 48

5 Weight 50 Weight 50

Body Mass Index 60 Weight Velocity 64 Skinfold Thickness 67 Bibliography 70

6 Head Circumference (Occipitofrontal Circumference, OFC) 72 Introduction 72

Head Circumference (OFC) 72 Head Circumference (OFC) Velocity 82 Bibliography 83

7 Craniofacies 84 Introduction 84 Skull 89

Fontanelles 109

Scalp and Facial Hair Patterning 118

Eyes 118

Ears 137

Nose 153

Philtrum 162

Mouth 166

Palate 169

Palate Width 174

Tongue 175

Teeth 177

Maxilla 179

Mandible 183

The Neck 188

Bibliography 191

8 Limbs 193 Introduction 193 Span 195

Total Upper Limb (Hand and Arm) Length 197

Upper Arm Length 199

Forearm Length 202

Carrying Angle 206

Hand Length 207

Middle Finger Length 211

Palm Length 214

Palm Width 217

Thumb Position, Placement, and Range of Movement 221

Total Lower Limb Length 223

Upper Leg (Thigh) Length 228

Lower Leg (Calf) Length 230

Foot Length 234

Foot Width 238

Upper-to-Lower Segment Ratio 240 Limb Circumference 244 Range of Movement 247 Hyperextensibility 254 Bibliography 255

9 Chest and Trunk 257 Introduction 257

Chest Circumference 260 Internipple Distance 263 Thoracic Index 265 Sternal Length 268 Torso Length 270

Biacromial Distance 272 Bi-Iliac Distance 274 Umbilical Cord Length 276 Bibliography 278

10 Genitalia 279 Introduction 279

Stages of Puberty (Tanner Stages) 281

Penile Length 286

Hypospadias 288

Testicular Volume 289

Testicular Descent 294

Anal Placement 296

Anal Diameter 297

Breast and Nipple Size and Shape 299

Measurement of Breast Volume 300

Bibliography 303

11 Skin and Hair 305 Introduction 305 Extensibility of Skin 306 Patterns Reflected by the Skin 307 Skin Color 309

Birthmarks 310 Glands of the Skin 314 Hair 317 Nails 320 Bibliography 324

12 Dermatoglyphics and Trichoglyphics 326 Dermatoglyphics: Introduction 326

Methods to Record and Analyze Dermatoglyphics 328

Analysis of Ridge Patterns 329

Analysis of Flexion Creases 332

Trichoglyphics: Introduction and Embryology 334

Normal and Abnormal Hair Patterns 335

Lanugo Hair Pattern 336

Bibliography 336

13 Use of Radiographs for Measurement 338 Introduction 338

Bone Age 338

Prediction of Adult Height 344 Dental Age 344 Pattern Profile of the Hand 348 Carpal Angle 354 Bibliography 356

14 Developmental Data 357 Introduction 357 Intelligence 361 Developmental Screening 363 Bibliography 367

15 Prenatal Ultrasound Measurements 368 Introduction 368

Choice of Measurement in Relation to Gestational Age 368 Prenatal Measurements 384 Normal Fetal Activity During Gestation 384 Bibliography 385

16 Postmortem Organ Weights 386 Embryo and Fetal Pathology 386 Bibliography 398

17 Measurements for Specific Syndromes 399 Introduction 399

Acondroplasia 401

Cornelia de Lange Syndrome 407

Cri du Chat Syndrome 417

Down Syndrome 424

Marfan Syndrome 438

Neurofibromatosis 446

Noonan Syndrome 450

Prader-Willi Syndrome 452

Pseudoachondroplasia 458

Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome 459

Russell-Silver Syndrome 462

Spondyloepiphysial Dysplasia Congenita 464

Trisomy 13 465

Trisomy 18 466

Turner Syndrome 468

Williams Syndrome 469

Bibliography 471

18 An Approach to the Child with Dysmorphic Features 474 Glossary 477

Index 491

Handbook of Physical Measurements

This page intentionally left blank

Was this article helpful?

0 0
5 Secrets to Lasting Longer In The Bedroom

5 Secrets to Lasting Longer In The Bedroom

How to increase your staying power to extend your pleasure-and hers. There are many techniques, exercises and even devices, aids, and drugs to help you last longer in the bedroom. However, in most cases, the main reason most guys don't last long is due to what's going on in their minds, not their bodies.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment