Bizygomatic Distance Facial Width

Definition The maximal distance between the most lateral points on the zygomatic arches (zygion) (Fig. 7.19).

Landmarks Measure between the most lateral points of the zygomatic arches (zygion), localized by palpation (Figs 7.1 and 7.19).

Instruments Spreading calipers will give the most precise results. A tape-measure can be used, but should be held in a straight line parallel to the zygomatic arches avoiding the curves of the zygomata.

Position The head should be held erect (in the resting position) with the eyes looking straight forward.

Remarks The most lateral point of each zygomatic arch is identified by trial measurement, not by anatomical relationship. X-ray measurements will give more exact results but will not take skin thickness into account. Once established, facial width does not change with age (Fig. 7.20).

Pitfalls Conditions in which the first and second branchial arches are abnormal will produce distorted measurements. X-ray films are preferred in this situation.

Figure 7.19 Measuring facial width with calipers.

Bizygomatic Width

Figure 7.20 Bizygomatic distance, both sexes, 4 to 16 years. From Farkas (1981), by permission.

Age (years)

Figure 7.20 Bizygomatic distance, both sexes, 4 to 16 years. From Farkas (1981), by permission.

Chapter 7 Craniofacies Facial Index

Definition This ratio utilizes the previous two measurements, facial height (nasion to menton) and bizygomatic distance (facial width), and provides a numerical estimate of facial height compared to width, in order to assess a long, narrow face as compared with a short, wide face (Fig. 7.21).

Facial height (mm)

Facial width (mm)

Figure 7.21 Facial index, both sexes, birth to 16 years. From Feingold and Bossert (1974) and Farkas and Munro (1987), by permission.

Figure 7.21 Facial index, both sexes, birth to 16 years. From Feingold and Bossert (1974) and Farkas and Munro (1987), by permission.

Head Circumference Girls Years
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Age (years)
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Responses

  • steffen
    How to measure bizygomatic width?
    3 years ago

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