The Secret to Happiness
Psychological phenomena usually consist of many facets. Emotions, for example, refer not only to the conscious representation of the feeling itself ( I am happy ) but also to many other changes in the individual (Davidson, Goldsmith, & Scherer, 2003 Kahneman, Diener, & Schwarz, 1999 Larsen & Prizmic-Larsen, this volume, chap. 23). An individual feeling happiness might jump up, feel an inner ease, and even embrace and kiss passersby. Moreover, muscle changes in the face might accompany this feeling, the brain might produce endorphins, and the individual may likely entertain positive
Given that many problems can emerge when respondents construct a self-reported judgment, the final issue that we will address concerns the accuracy and validity of the self-report method. Although errors surely do occur, they often do not severely limit the validity of the measures. For instance, self-reports often agree with non-self-report measures of the same construct. Within the well-being domain, for instance, researchers have shown that self-reports of happiness and life satisfaction correlate moderately to strongly with such diverse methods as observer ratings, online assessments, and cognitive measures including the number of positive and negative memories that can be recalled in a short period of time (Lucas, Diener, & Suh, 1996 Pavot, Diener, Colvin, & Sandvik, 1991). Similarly, personality researchers have shown that although the accuracy of self-reports varies across individuals, contexts, and the specific trait or behavior being rated, self-reports are often very good...
When pain is suspected in a person who is unable to communicate verbally or to understand, such as the case with receptive aphasia often seen after strokes, the assessment of pain will depend heavily on being able to recognize aberrant physical or behavioral responses (10,11). Body language that has typically been associated with pain unfortunately also may be associated with other etiologies. For example, grimacing or wincing may be associated with nausea, disgust, or distaste. Fist clenching or muscle tightening may be associated with anger. Withdrawal can be reflexic or occur when frightened or startled or even in response to tickling. Crying, of course, can reflect sadness or, in many circumstances, even happiness.
Nevertheless, it seems quite plausible that introspective content could be simulated in mental images (for specific proposals, see Barsalou, 1999,2003a). It seems possible to simulate the introspective experiences of emotions (e.g., happiness), drive states (e.g., hunger), and cognitive operations (e.g., comparing two imagined objects). There is no empirical or theoretical reason for believing that introspective content could not be simulated as part of a conceptual representation. Thus, we will assume that the presence of introspective content in conceptual representations does not constitute evidence against embodied theories of knowledge.
The answers to several fundamental questions will influence perceptions about mental health and older people and the distributional issues that inevitably arise in their care. First, what goals should mental health care serve Second, how do interventions relate to outcomes Third, how much or what kind of care should society provide (Sabin & Daniels, 1994) Each of these questions has contestable answers. For older people, mental health care can focus on any of three ends helping to make well those already suffering from mental illnesses or impairments of various kinds developing and implementing strategies that might help older people avoid mental illnesses and striving for improved mental health and therefore enhanced potential for happiness. The first approach is circumscribed the second and third approaches are more expansive, focusing not on the absence of mental disease but on the individual's ability to function in desirably positive ways, that is, to experience a subjective...
American society has become increasingly diverse during this century. In the past 150 years, there has been a multifold increase in emigration to the United States by people of other nationalities, races, religions, and backgrounds. To many of these immigrants, this nation held out a promise of personal status, affluence, and happiness they could not hope to achieve in their native countries. Unfortunately, the differences between these people
Differences also exist between the behaviors and attitudes of upper, middle, and lower-class adults. For example, greater percentages of people in the middle and upper social classes hold conservative viewpoints on political issues, and hence are more apt to vote Republican than those in the lower social classes (Lazarsfeld, Berelson, & Gaudet, 1944). Violence and mental illness are also more common in the working and lower classes than in the middle and upper classes. Personal health and happiness, however, are higher in members of higher social classes (Berger, Cohen, & Zelditch, 1973 Markides et al., 1990 Srole, Langer, Michael, Opler, & Rennie, 1962).
Census Bureau, 2004), a trend that is fast becoming global and carries immense implications for all world cultures and economies. Moreover, in addition to aging of the general population, demographics within the aged group itself are also shifting as the category of oldest old (80+ years) is growing faster than any other segment of elderly. Now, along with increased longevity provided by scientific achievements, science should also work to increase life satisfaction and happiness for growing numbers of aged. Extended years should be years lived well, if possible. It is our view that aging research should be collaborative across disciplines as an understanding of the biological bases of aging without consideration of behavior or individual differences, or vice versa, is an incomplete understanding.
Which is in conformity with any other.220 The same is true in the context of liberty. For example, Berlin has noted that 'Almost every moralist in human history has praised freedom. Like happiness and goodness, like nature and reality, the meaning of this term is so porous that there is little interpretation that it seems able to resist.'221
For most older adults, retirement is an active, rewarding period of their lives. They now have time to pursue interests and complete tasks that they had to postpone or devote less time to during their working years. Not only do most people adjust well to retirement, but also their health and happiness may actually improve when they are no longer required to conform to the daily grind (Betancourt, 1991 Herzog & House, 1991 Quinn & Burkhauser, 1990). For these reasons, retirees are, on the whole, satisfied individuals who retain a sense of usefulness and pride in themselves and their accomplishments.
One often hears about wedded bliss or matrimonial harmony, but these are obviously not descriptive of many conjugal relationships. It may be that marriages are made in heaven, though it is doubtful unless one is a bride of Christ or married to the church. Duration is certainly not a sure-fire indicator of marital happiness. Most people who get married probably intend to stay that way, but, as one young woman explained to me, If it doesn't work out there are always divorce courts. Still, you can't equate marital stability with marital satisfaction. One 90-some-thing-year-old couple celebrated their diamond wedding anniversary by untying the knot. They confessed that they had never really liked each other but decided to wait until the children had grown old and died before going their separate ways.
The way in which these resources are combined are determined at the individual level, according to each person's preference (or utility) function. For example, some individuals would spend their money on cars while others would spend it on housing, but all would maximize their utility (happiness) by allocating their personal resources appropriately. Welfare economic theory asserts that the overall welfare of a society is determined through aggregating individual welfare. Under welfare economics, the optimal allocation of resources is obtained when each individual's welfare is maximized. When such conditions are met, some individuals may have worse health than others, but if this distribution reflects individual differences in preferences for health, then the inequality in health is unimportant. That is, what welfare economics seeks to maximize is aggregate utility not aggregate health. This approach accepts that individual preferences for health often vary. For...
Already the application of a cosmetic product is a venue of pleasure and relaxation. The person can for a brief period concentrate on herself or himself and relax, and the massage maneuvre, while spreading an elegant, fragrant scent, is coupled with pleasure and mental satisfaction. Such daily life dreamy meditation is often displayed in announcements for cosmetics where beautiful ladies apply wonderful creams, wordless in their happiness, almost flying in the cosmos. By promoting this way, the producers contribute to daydreams and quality of life, and actually meet with some true needs of the consumers. Cosmetics are used to an enormous degree, much more so than true biological or medical needs of the skin could ever explain or justify on rational grounds.
Typically, psychological well-being in nonhuman primates is measured through behavioral observations and or hormonal analyses. However, at least one recent study has shown that well-being or happiness can be reliably estimated by human raters who are familiar with the individual (King and Landau, 2003). In these studies, zookeepers or researchers with extensive experience working with or observing individual chimpanzees were asked to rank them on overall mood, quality of social relationships, extent to which they were successful in achieving goals, and how much they would like to be a particular chimpanzee. Results showed that reliability across raters was as consistent as have been found in human studies of subjective well-being. Furthermore, this construct appears to be heritable and generically correlated with dominance (Weiss, King, and Enns, 2002). There was a strong correlation between personality and subjective well-being in chimpanzees, and many aspects of well-being in...
The number and variety of a person's experiences increase with age. For most children, the journey of life begins in a family setting and expands to the community, the school, and the world of work. Depending on the appearance and behavior of the individual, as well as the nature of the social situation and the people coniprising it, social encounters may be friendly or unfriendly, successful or unsuccessful. Relatives, peers, fellow students, and coworkers can be competitive or cooperative, accepting or rejecting. In general, the more socially active a person is, the more friendly and unfriendly contacts he or she has. More frequent social interaction produces sympathetic, helping behavior as well as quarrelsomeness and aggression. Throughout it all, most individuals learn that social and psychological survival depends on being able to give and take, and that happiness requires attention to the needs of others as well as oneself. Most people learn this lesson in childhood, whereas...
In most cases, the living environment is sufficiently supportive of the needs of people to make them want to stay. The network consisting of family, friends, medical facilities, schools, jobs, stores, and other people and organizations should provide the necessary support systems for individual growth, productivity, and happiness. Sometimes, however, the environment or the individual changes in such a way that there is no longer a good match between what the individual requires or desires and what the physical or psychological environment of a community has to offer.
In a RCT, exposure to lavender aromatherapy during breaks resulted In significantly higher concentration levels during the afternoon period when concentration was found to be lowest In a control group (Sakamoto et al 2005). Lavender oil aromatherapy has also been found to reduce mental stress and Increase arousal rate (Motomura et al 2001), elicit a subjective sense of 'happiness' (Vernet-Maury et al 1999) and to produce Increased relaxation, less depressed mood and faster and more accurate mathematical computations (Field et al 2005). In a RCT, lavender aromatherapy tended to enhance calculating speed and calculating accuracy In female but not male subjects (Liu et al 2004), but results from another study suggest 2007 Elsevier Australia
The preceding observations can be summarized by saying that moral disapprobation takes on various forms. It is context sensitive. The same may be true for moral approbation. We may feel gratitude or admiration when a stranger does something good, and we might feel pride or self-righteousness when we do good ourselves. Disapprobation and approbation refer to ranges of emotions. In a word, they are sentiments. Sentiments can be defined as dispositions to experience different emotions in different contexts (Prinz, 2004). For example, the sentiment of liking ice cream may involve feeling happiness when ice cream is obtained, sadness when it is unavailable, and craving when it comes to mind. Disapprobation and approbation are sentiments that can be defined as dispositions to experience various different emotions as a function of context.
According to the strong embodiment claim, part of understanding emotional language is getting the body into (or moving toward) the appropriate bodily state because that is what gives the words their meaning. Consequently, if bodily systems are already in (or close to) those appropriate states, then understanding should be facilitated, and if the bodily systems are in inappropriate states, those states should interfere with language understanding. More concretely, if we are reading about pleasant events, we should be faster to understand those sentences if we are in a happy state than if we are in an unhappy state. Conversely, if we are reading about unpleasant events, we should be faster to understand those sentences if we are in an unhappy state than if we are in a happy state. Note that these predictions are based on two assumptions. The first is a dimensional assumption, namely that the bodily states corresponding to happiness are further away from those corresponding to...
Relationship factors such as marital satisfaction, marital adjustment, happiness, and stability have been related to orgasm consistency, quality, and satisfaction in women for review see Ref. (65) . These findings are correlational in nature. Clearly, a satisfying marital relationship is not necessary for orgasm, particularly given rates of orgasm consistency in women are higher during masturbation than with a partner (60). A satisfying marital relationship most likely promotes orgasmic function via increased communication regarding sexually pleasurable activity, decreased anxiety, and enhancement of the subjective and emotional qualities of orgasm (65).
Most psychodynamic theorists believe that the psychosocial origins of cyclothymia lie in early traumas and unmet needs dating back to the earliest stages of childhood development. Hypomania has been described as a deficiency of self-criticism and an absence of inhibitions. The patient is believed to use denial to avoid external problems and internal feelings of depression. Hypomania is also believed to be frequently triggered by profound interpersonal loss. The false feeling of euphoria (giddy or intense happiness) that arises in such instances serves as a protection against painful feelings of sadness, and even possibly anger against the lost loved one.
Our review highlights the fact that the issues of aging are fundamentally religious realities that must not be medicalized or reduced to objects of biology. Each religion speaks to our humanity in its own distinctive voice, shedding light on how we must care, cure, and cope with our mortality. On the one hand, there is profound trust in the goodness of God on the other hand, there is acceptance of nature's laws. Therefore, what counts is not longevity but quality of life. To have this sense of spiritual creativity is the great happiness and the premier proof of being alive.
Although many theories and research findings have contributed to the development of personality assessment instruments, the most influential of all conceptualizations have been those that view human personality as a conglomeration of traits. Broadly defined, a trait is a cognitive, affective, or psychomotor characteristic that is possessed in different amounts by different people. A type, on the other hand, is a larger dimension of personality, consisting of a particular complex of traits. For example, Reichard, Livson, and Petersen's (1962) five clusters of personality in older men (mature, rocking chair, armored, angry, and self-hating) are personality types. A related example of types is found in the results of Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin's (1968) study of the relationships of long-standing personality characteristics and social activity to happiness in a sample of people aged 70 to 79. This study was concerned with four major personality types integrated, armored-defended,...
People should be enabled to ''die well.'' Again, as noted earlier and contrary to some myths, people do not fear death so much as the loss of well-being and a painful decline (Gallup & Newport, 1991 Saunders & Baines, 1989). But decline is not simply equatable with physiological or biological deterioration. Decline in quality of life can occur quite without physiological or biological deterioration. Even the argument that a minimal condition of ''health'' is a necessary condition of ''happiness'' does not, and cannot, claim that ''health'' is a sufficient condition of happiness. Moreover, and perhaps more important, decline of ''health'' does not necessarily or for all persons entail diminishment of self and sense of self as an integral individual human being. Of course, there are a variety of contingent matters and conditions that can contribute to a loss
Certain psychologists and psychiatrists, viewing heterosexual union as a sine qua non of mental health and happiness, have considered chronic bachelors and spinsters as self-centered, neurotic, and often sexually deviant individuals who live lonely, dispirited lives. Although some research studies have found lifelong singles to be lonelier than marrieds, most singles appear to be happy, socially adjusted individuals who are satisfied with their lifestyles and interact frequently with their families, friends, and coworkers (Cargan & Melko, 1982 Essex &Nam, 1987 Rubinstein, 1987). Many women who have remained single are professional careerists who value their personal freedom and economic and social independence more than the emotional, sexual, and financial security of marriage. Such women may be highly educated, but a substantial percentage of those who remain single have a less than average amount of formal education (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1992).
Because a child competes for their attention and often dominates their lives, the parents' personal happiness and satisfaction with their marriage frequently suffers (Wallace & Gotlib, 1990). Mothers in particular complain that they are tied down by children and that children limit their ability to work outside the home and achieve financial stability (Jacoby, 1982 Roper Organization, 1985). In a study by Thompson and Walker (1990), one-third of the mothers who were interviewed reported that they derived no meaning or enjoyment from motherhood, and another one-third had mixed feelings about it. These negative responses should, however, not be interpreted as meaning that parenthood is without rewards. A child brings love, joy, and meaningful-ness to most mothers and fathers, and the process of bringing up a child can have a positive effect on the development of both the child and the parents. For example, Lowenthal, Thurnher, and Chiriboga (1975) found that the parents they interviewed...
Merely because an activity is not absolutely necessary for survival does not mean that it is unimportant to one's sense of well-being. Time spent away from the demands of work or duty, or from the exercise of vital functions, is not always wasted or valueless. Leisure activities, pursued either inside or outside the home, may be just as essential to happiness as anything else that people do. Reading, listening to music, watching television, parlor games, and engaging in exercise and various hobbies frequently occur in the confines of one's living quarters. However, many leisure activities jogging, field sports, attending the theater and restaurants and other spectator or participant activities take place outside the home.
According to the utilitarian, the interests of every individual affected by an action count morally and deserve equal consideration. In utilitarian writings, the notion of an interest is usually defined in terms of the capacity for suffering or enjoyment or happiness .21 Thus, individuals have an interest in acts that will enhance their enjoyment or reduce their suffering. From this it follows that all sentient beings,
In Europe, marjoram was a traditional symbol of youth and romantic love. Used by Romans as an aphrodisiac, it was used to cast love spells and was worn at weddings as a sign of happiness during the Middle Ages. Greeks who wore marjoram wreaths at weddings called it joy of the mountains. It was used to brew beer before hops was discovered, and flavored a wine called hippocras. A cousin of the oregano family, marjoram originated in Mediterranean regions and is now a commonly used spice in many parts of Europe. Called za'tar in the Middle East and often mistaken for oregano, it is also a popular spicing in eastern Europe.
In the same survey, health and happiness were also separately correlated with sexual disinterest. The greater the impairment of health and the magnitude of unhappiness, the greater the extent of sexual disinterest. When considering quality-of-life concomitants, men with low sexual desire experienced a low level of physical satisfaction and a low level of general happiness, with their primary partner.
According to James Fowler (1981,1986), faith develops throuqh a series of six stages, reminiscent of but not paralleling Lawrence Kohlberg's (1976) conception of six stages in the development of moral reasoning. By faith, Fowler does not mean religious faith exclusively, but rather anything that provides people with a reason for living and hope for happiness. Stage 1 in Fowler's theory intuitive-projective faith is a faith based on magic, imagination, and fantasy. At this stage, which is characteristic of children between the ages of 3 and 7, the power of God and the mysteries of life and death are interpreted magically, At Stage 2 mythic-literal faith religious myths and stories are accepted as literally true and the power of symbols is believed in. This kind of faith, which is characteristic not only of middle childhood but also of some adults, involves the notion of reciprocity God rewards or punishes those who obey or do not obey His laws.
Citrus aurantium var. dulcis The essential oil is used to convey warmth and happiness and improve mood (Battaglia 2003), reduce stress, and promote sleep (Miakeet al 1991), and aid concentration (Baron & Thomley 1994). It is traditionally known as 'the oil of communication and happiness'. It is also used to improve digestion and as a carminative to relieve gastric cramping and discomfort. Citrus aurantium var. amara The essential oil is used to reduce anxiety, muscle tension and promote relaxation. It is used in cosmetics to repair broken capillaries, stimulate cell regeneration and to manage acne-prone skin.
A number of factors are associated with enduring marriages. Included among them are the relative maturity of the partners when they are married, the degree of financial security, and a feeling that the relationship is an equal one (Diamond, 1986). Among other factors that can interfere with marital happiness and have an effect on the length of a marriage are pregnancy or delivery prior to the marriage ceremony, the physical appearance of one's spouse (Margolin & White, 1987), whether or not there are children in the home, and the personal and behavioral characteristics of the spouse (dependency argumentativeness addiction to alcohol, tobacco, and drugs). With older couples, the situation in which the husband is retired but the wife continues to work outside the home can become a source of conflict and dissatisfaction in marriage (Lee, 1988). ence periods of cooperation and conflict, like and dislike. The longer two people live together, the greater their investment in the marriage...
Forty women who had been selected by L. Terman (1925) in 1921 for a study of intellectually gifted California schoolchildren were reinterviewed in 1987 when their mean age was 77 yrs. These Ss had been prospectively followed by questionnaire over the intervening 65 yrs. Their capacity for creativity (putting something in the world that was not there before) was assessed by review of their prospectively gathered questionnaires and by retrospective interview. The 20 Ss viewed as most creative (usually for literary publication, art, music, or starting an organization) were more likely in the past to have manifested generativity, and at the present to have adjusted well to old age. Although the ego defenses of sublimation, humor, and altruism were more frequent among creative Ss, no differences were noted in the happiness of their childhoods or their health prior to the present. (Reprinted with permission of the American Psychological Association, publisher of Psychological Abstracts and...
Cohabitation and marriage are different social institutions, according to some scholars. Nock (1995) has argued that cohabitation is much less institutionalized than marriage, at least in the United States and other countries in which it has become common relatively recently, because it is not covered by clear expectations or norms, and the legal rights and responsibilities of cohabiting partners have not been established. The requirements for establishing or ending a cohabiting union are minimal, with no legal or religious or community formalities involved. There is ambiguity about what it means to be a cohabiting partner, to the members of the couple themselves, their families and friends, their community, and to children belonging to one or both of them. The uncertainty about the nature of the relationship and its future seems to lead to lower levels of commitment, lower levels of relationship happiness (Brown and Booth 1996), and lower levels of emotional well-being, especially...
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