Thyrotropic Hormone

A. Thyrotropic Receptor

Like other polypeptide hormone receptors, TSH receptor is located in the cellular membrane of thyroid cells. A functional model of the TSH receptor has been hypothesized and is shown in Figure 5-35.

TSHR is a seven-membrane-spanning domain receptor with a large extracellular domain. TSH binding is in the extracellular domain, and trypsinization of cells containing the receptor generates a 15-30-kDa peptide capable of binding TSH. Apparently the loops themselves are not involved in ligand binding and signaling as they are in the adrenergic receptors. The model shown in Fig. 5-35 has been derived from site-directed mutagenesis in terms of functional domains. Antibodies, especially from patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, have been of great utility in mapping

DESCENDING rr /-\

INHIBITORY -M+HOPIATES) PATHWAYS

Nerve Growth Factor Ngf Pathway

FIGURE 5-33 Summary of modulatory mechanisms in the nociceptive pathway. Abbreviations: CGRP, calcitonin gene-related peptide; 5-HT, serotonin; NE, norepinephrine; BK, bradykinin, PGs, prostaglandins; NGF, nerve growth factor; SP, substance P; GABA, y-aminobutyric acid; NSAIDS, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Reproduced with permission from Rang, H. P., Dale, M. M., Ritter, J. M., and Gardner, P. (1995). "Pharmacology." Churchill-Livingstone, NY.

FIGURE 5-33 Summary of modulatory mechanisms in the nociceptive pathway. Abbreviations: CGRP, calcitonin gene-related peptide; 5-HT, serotonin; NE, norepinephrine; BK, bradykinin, PGs, prostaglandins; NGF, nerve growth factor; SP, substance P; GABA, y-aminobutyric acid; NSAIDS, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Reproduced with permission from Rang, H. P., Dale, M. M., Ritter, J. M., and Gardner, P. (1995). "Pharmacology." Churchill-Livingstone, NY.

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Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

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