Ldl

receptor

-y -y cytoplasm

CSF-1 receptor

FIGURE 20-7 Family of cell surface receptors having tyrosine kinase activity. The positions of tyrosines (y) are possible phosphorylation sites. Domains sharing similar function-sequences include the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains and the extracellular "high cysteine" domains. The location of cysteine (.) is also noted. Reproduced with permission from Burck, K. B., Liu, E. T., and Larrick, J. W. (1988). "Oncogenes, An Introduction to the Concept of Cancer Genes," p. 166. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Hormones, Second Edition TABLE 20-3 Some Genes Involved in Human Cancers

Genes known as proto-oncogenes code for proteins that stimulate cell division; mutated forms, called oncogenes, can cause the stimulatory proteins to be overactive, with the result that cells proliferate excessively. Tumor suppressor genes code for proteins that inhibit cell division. Mutations can cause the proteins to be inactivated and may thus deprive cells of needed restraints on proliferation. Investigators are still trying to decipher the specific functions of many tumor suppressor genes.

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