L H

figure 13-12 Model describing the steroidogenic actions of FSH and LH on the ovary. Modified from Siiteri, P. K., and Febres, F. (1979). Ovarian hormone synthesis, circulation, and mechanisms of action. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. DeGroot, G. F. Cahill, L. Martini, D. H. Nelson, W. D. Odell, J. T. Potts, Jr., E. Steinberger, and A. J. Winegrad, eds.), Vol. 3, p. 1405. Grune & Stratton, New York.

figure 13-12 Model describing the steroidogenic actions of FSH and LH on the ovary. Modified from Siiteri, P. K., and Febres, F. (1979). Ovarian hormone synthesis, circulation, and mechanisms of action. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. DeGroot, G. F. Cahill, L. Martini, D. H. Nelson, W. D. Odell, J. T. Potts, Jr., E. Steinberger, and A. J. Winegrad, eds.), Vol. 3, p. 1405. Grune & Stratton, New York.

The ER is predominantly localized in the nucleus of the cell, irrespective of whether it has a bound li-gand, e.g., estradiol; a comparison of the subcellular locations of other unoccupied receptors is given in

Table 1-5. As noted in Figure 13-14, the ER has two nuclear localization signals inherent in its structure.

Prior to binding ligand, the ER is present in an inactive complex with the heat shock protein, hsp 90. As

figure 13-13 Summary of pathways of steroidogenesis of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone (limited quantities) by the ovarian follicle (theca interna cells and granulosa cells) and the corpus luteum. Figure 13-2 describes the morphological changes occurring in the mammalian ovary that are necessary for the formation of a mature follicle (major source of estradiol) and after ovulation the generation of the corpus luteum (major source of progesterone).

figure 13-13 Summary of pathways of steroidogenesis of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone (limited quantities) by the ovarian follicle (theca interna cells and granulosa cells) and the corpus luteum. Figure 13-2 describes the morphological changes occurring in the mammalian ovary that are necessary for the formation of a mature follicle (major source of estradiol) and after ovulation the generation of the corpus luteum (major source of progesterone).

TABLE 13-4 Tissue Distribution of Estrogen Receptors

Reproductive tract Uterus (mammals) Vagina (mammals) Placenta (mammals) Oviduct (chicken) Ovary

Corpus luteum Mammary tissue (mammals)

Neuroendocrine system Pituitary Hypothalamus Brain (preoptic area, septum, amygdala, cortex) Testis

Epididymis

Prostate gland

Seminal vesicles

Miillerian duct (chick embryo)

Visceral organs Liver Kidney Lung described in Figure 13-15, the binding of estradiol to the ER facilitates the formation of an ER homodimer, which then binds to the hormone response elements (HRE) located on the promoter of the gene so as to generate a functional transcriptional complex.

TABLE 13-5 Temporal Actions of Estrogens in the Rat Uterus"

Time after estradiol administration

Sequence of responses

30 min

Stimulation of RNA polymerase II

1 hr

Stimulation of glucose and

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Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.

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