Irs1

raf kinase MAP kinase-kinase MAP kinase p90rsk

Growth

Kinase cascade

Metabolism figure 19-4 Signal pathway of receptor-activated tyrosine kinase receptors. Activation of receptor-linked tyrosine kinases by cytokines, growth factors, and insulin induces receptor autophosph-orylation. The complex of GRB2 and the son of sevenless (SOS) guanine nucleotide-releasing protein is recruited to the plasma membrane by the receptor via SH2 domain-phosphotyrosine interaction. SOS activates raf kinase, which initiates a phosphorylation cascade, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-kinase, MAP-kinase, and p90rsk, leading to cellular effects on metabolism and cell growth. Reproduced with permission from Gammeltoft, S., and Kahn, C. R. (1995). Hormone signaling via membrane receptors. In "Endocrinology" (L. J., DeGroot, ed.), 3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 17-65. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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