Irs1

raf kinase MAP kinase-kinase MAP kinase p90rsk

Growth

Kinase cascade

Metabolism figure 19-4 Signal pathway of receptor-activated tyrosine kinase receptors. Activation of receptor-linked tyrosine kinases by cytokines, growth factors, and insulin induces receptor autophosph-orylation. The complex of GRB2 and the son of sevenless (SOS) guanine nucleotide-releasing protein is recruited to the plasma membrane by the receptor via SH2 domain-phosphotyrosine interaction. SOS activates raf kinase, which initiates a phosphorylation cascade, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-kinase, MAP-kinase, and p90rsk, leading to cellular effects on metabolism and cell growth. Reproduced with permission from Gammeltoft, S., and Kahn, C. R. (1995). Hormone signaling via membrane receptors. In "Endocrinology" (L. J., DeGroot, ed.), 3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 17-65. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.

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