Gastrointestinal Hormones

I. Introduction 229

A Background 229 B Resume of the Gastrointestinal

Hormones 230 C Problems of Food Processing and Digestion 230

II. Anatomical, Morphological, and Physiological Relationships 231

A Gastroenteropancreatic System 231 B. Stomach 231

C Small and Large Intestines 233

D. Hormone-Secreting Cells: Their Distribution in the Gastroenteropancreatic Complex 235

E. Coordination of Gastroenteropancreatic Hormone Release 236

F Brain-Gut Axis 236

III. Chemistry and Biochemistry 236

A. General Relationships 236

B. Cholecystokinin (CCK) 236 C Gastrin 238

D. Secretin 238

E. Enkephalins 239

F. Enteroglucagon 239 G G1P 239

H. Motilin 240 I. Neurotensin 240

J Pancreatic Polypeptide Family (PP) 240 K Somatostatin 240 L. Bombesin and Tachykinin Peptide

Families 241 M. Calcitonin Gene-Related

Peptide 241 N. Endothelin 241 O. Galamn 242 P. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) 242

IV. Biological and Molecular Actions 243

A. Gastric Acid Secretion 243

B. Pancreatic, Biliary, and Intestinal Secretions 244


C. Motor Functions of the Intestinal Tract 247 V. Clinical Aspects 247

A Peptic fleer Disease 247

B. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome 247

C. Carcinoid Syndrome 247 References 247

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Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

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