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Posterior Pituitary Hormones

I. Introduction 109 II. Anatomy and Development of the Posterior Pituitary 111

III. Chemistry 111

A. Structures of Active and Substituted Posterior Pituitary Hormones 111

B. Interaction of Posterior Pituitary Hormones with Active Sites of Neurophysins 112

IV. Biochemistry* 114

A. Formation and Neurosecretion of Posterior Pituitary Hormones 114

V. Biological and Molecular Actions 118

A. Role of VP (Antidiuretic Hormone) m the Regulation of Body Fluids 118

B The VP Target: The Kidney Distal Tubule 120

C. Mechanism of Action of VP in the Kidney Distal Tubule 120

D. Nature of Kidney VP-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase 123

E. Effects of VP on the Liver 123

F. VP and ACTH Release 124

G. Behavioral Effects of VP 125

H. Overview of Regulation of Oxytocin Secretion from the Posterior Pituitary 126

I. Mechanism of Action of OT 128

J. The OT Receptor 128

K. Degradation of Posterior Pituitary Hormones 128 VI. Clinical Aspects 128

References 130

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