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Steroid Hormones: Chemistry, Biosynthesis, and Metabolism

I. Introduction 49

A. General Comments 49 B Historical Perspective 50 II. Chemistry of Steroids 51

A. Basic Ring Structure 51

B. Classes of Steroids 51

C Structural Modificanon 52

D. Asymmetnc Carbons 52

E. Conformation of Steroids 55

F. Other Steroid Structures 56

III. Biosynthesis of Cholesterol 57

A. General Comments 57

B. Pathway of Production 57

C. Role of Sterol Carrier Protein 60

D. Regulation of Cholesterol Biosynthesis 60

E. Inhibitors of Cholesterol Biosynthesis 63

IV. Biosynthesis of Steroids 65

A. Introduction 65

B. Biosynthesis of Pregnenolone and Progestins 67

C Biosynthesis by the Adrenal Cortex of Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, and Some Androgens 67

D. Biosynthesis of Androgens 71

E. Biosynthesis of Estrogens 72

F. Biosynthesis of Vitamin D Metabolites 72

G. Biosynthesis of Bile Adds 73

V. Propertieft of Enzyme┬╗ Involved in Steroid Metabolism 75

A. Introduction 75

B P450 Steroid Hydroxylases 75

C Other Enzymes of Steroid Metabolism 79

VI. Plasma Transport, Catabolism, and Excretion of Steroid Hormone* 61

A General Comments 81 B Plasma Transport of Steroid and

Thyroid Hormones 83 C Measurements of Rates of Sccrction and

Metabolic Clearance 83 D. Inactivation of Steroid Hormone?┬╗ 85 References 85

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