" Information in this table was abstracted from Ganong, W. F. (1995). "Review of Medical Physiology," Chapters 25-26. Appleton-Lange, New York.

a Abstracted from Nakayma, F., and Miyake, H. (1966). Species differences in cholesterol-complexing macromolecular fractions in bile in relation to gallstone formation. }. Lab. Clin. Med. 67, 78-86.

and it is probable that this is the basis for their actions on the intestinal secretion of H20 and electrolytes. The cellular mechanisms of the other gut hormones in this system are not known.

C. Motor Functions of the Intestinal Tract

The gastrointestinal hormones play an important physiological role in the regulation of the motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract. This includes effects on the stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder, and bile ducts. The hormones may have indirect effects (neurally mediated) or direct actions (muscular) on smooth muscle motor activity. The peptides that primarily stimulate motor activity are gastrin, CCK, and motilin, while the peptides that inhibit motor activity are secretin, VIP, glucagon, and enteroglucagon. Gastrin exerts its effects partly via direct interaction with intestinal or stomach muscle cell receptors and partly via postganglionic cholinergic fibers; it is effective at very low concentrations [e.g., (1-100) X 10~12 M].

The actions of CCK on gallbladder contraction are receptor-mediated. Emptying of bile is the result of a number of successive events: (a) First, there is a progressive increase in the tension of the gallbladder wall; (b) then an intermittent opening of the sphincter-like cholecystocystic junction occurs; (c) next, there are phasic contractions along the common axis of the bile duct; and (d) finally, sequential opening and closing of the choledochoduodenal sphincter occur, resulting in the periodic discharge of bile into the duodenum. No molecular mechanisms of hormone action are available to describe these complex and critical physiological processes.

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.

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