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Langerhans

Penis

Increased blood flow

" The information in this table was abstracted from Wilding, J. P. H., Gahatei, M. A., and Bloom, S. R. (1995). Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. DeGroot, M. Besser,

H. G. Burger, J. L. lameson, D. L. Loriaux, J. C. Marshall, W. D. Odell, J. T. Potts, Jr., and A. H. Rubenstein, eds.), Vol. 3, Chapter 153, pp. 2870-2894. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.

" The information in this table was abstracted from Wilding, J. P. H., Gahatei, M. A., and Bloom, S. R. (1995). Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. DeGroot, M. Besser,

H. G. Burger, J. L. lameson, D. L. Loriaux, J. C. Marshall, W. D. Odell, J. T. Potts, Jr., and A. H. Rubenstein, eds.), Vol. 3, Chapter 153, pp. 2870-2894. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.

is a strong stimulator of pepsinogen secretion. The enzymatically inactive pepsinogen (40.4 kDa) is, in the presence of acid, autocatalytically converted to the active form, pepsin, by the cleavage of a 42-amino-acid residue from the N-terminal portion of the peptide chain. Pepsin is active at acidic pH (below 3.5) and is irreversibly inactivated at neutral or slightly alkaline pH. The active form of pepsin is 32 kDa and has a proetolytic specificity for Trp, Phe, Tyr, Met, and Leu amino acid residues in a protein substrate.

B. Pancreatic, Biliary, and Intestinal Secretions

I. Exocrine Pancreas Secretion

After the ingestion of a meal, and associated with the appearance of the acidified chyme from the stomach in the duodenum, there is a coupled secretion by the exocrine pancreas of the pancreatic juice, which is a rich source of many enzymes; the composition is given in Table 8-10. Many of the potent enzymes are secreted in inactive pro forms and must be converted separately to active enzymes in the lumen of the intestine. The pancreatic secretion is mainly dependent upon the actions of CCK; in addition, the stimulation of appro-

Galanin GWT LNSAGY L LGPHAVGNHRS FSDKNGLTS -COOH

FIGURE 8-12 Amino acid sequence of human galanin. The mature galanin is derived from a pro precursor consisting of 201 amino acids. [The information was abstracted from McKnight, G. L., Karlsen, A. E., Kowalyk, S. et al. (1992). Sequence of human galanin and its inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from RIN cells. Diabetes 41, 82-87.]

8. Gastrointestinal Hormones

Mast cell

Mast cell

Protein kinases

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