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+500 +500

"This table represents recommendations on energy intake that were reported in Recommended Dietary Allowances (1989), prepared by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, 10th ed., National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

b REE is the resting energy expenditure in kilocalories/day; the values were derived from basal metabolic rate (BMR) measurements.

B. Development and Embryologie Origins

In invertebrates, the functional cells of the exocrine pancreas and liver are combined and there is no clear-cut presence of the endocrine pancreas cells. In vertebrates, there is increasing structural organization and differentiation of the exocrine and endocrine cells in relation to the liver as one proceeds from fish (endo crine pancreas is a separate organ; exocrine pancreas is partially incorporated into the liver) up through amphibia (endocrine cells scattered in exocrine tissue or islets) to birds and mammals where the pancreas is a separate organ (endocrine pancreas found as vascularized islets embedded in the exocrine tissue).

In mammals and birds, the adult pancreas develops embryologically from two diverticula of the duode-

TABLE 7-6 Hormones and Proteins Secreted by the Pancreas

Pancreatic cell

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