Vcv

Mitogenesisf

FIGURE 19-15 Schematic structure of c-wef-HGF receptor and signal transduction pathways from the receptor. Reproduced with permission from Matsumoto, K, and Nakamura, T. (1994). Pleiotro-pic roles of HGF in mitogenesis, morphogenesis, and organ regeneration. In "Growth Factors: Cell Growth, Morphogenesis, and Transformation" (T. Nakamura and K., Matsumoto, eds.), Gann Monograph on Cancer Research, Vol. 42, pp. 91-112, Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, CRC Press, Boca Raton/Ann Arbor/London/Tokyo.

tion of plasmin through cleavage by plasminogen activator. Curiously, the precursor of HGF is as active as the heterodimer of a- and /3-subunits.

The HGF receptor is the c-met protooncogene protein product, which is a membrane tyrosine kinase receptor. The kinase is in the /3-chain of the receptor on the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. HGF stimulates growth in a wide variety of tissues, in spite of its name, besides hepatocytes, including melanoma cells, melanocytes, keratinocytes, renal tubule cells, and mammary epithelia. Within an hour of partial hep-atectomy, there is a 15-fold increase in serum HGF levels.

The signal transduction pathways for HGF are indicated in Figure 19-15.

A. Books

DeGroot, L. J. (1995). "Endocrinology," 3rd ed., Vol. 1. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.

B. Review Articles

Daughaday, W. H. (1995). Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, and acromegaly. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. DeGroot, ed.), 3rd. ed., Vol. 1, pp. 303-329. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.

D'Ercole, A. J. (1993). Growth factors and development. In "Growth Factors in Perinatal Development" (R. C. Tsang, J. A. Lemons, and W. F. Balistreri, eds.), pp. 1-20. Raven Press, Ltd., New York.

Gammeltoft, S., and Kahn, C. R. (1995). Hormone signaling via membrane receptors. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. DeGroot, ed.), 3rd. ed., Vol. 1, pp. 17-65. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.

Gill, G. N., Bertics, P. J., Thompson, D. M., Weber, W., and Cochet, C. (1985). Structure and regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. In "Cancer Cells" (J. Feramisco, B. Ozanrtie, and C. Stiles, eds.), pp. 11-18. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.

Hsuan, J. J. (1989). Transforming growth factors ß. Br. Med. Bull. 45, 425-437.

Lee, D. C., Luetteke, N. C., Qiu, T. H., Chen, X., and Berkowitz, E. A. (1993). Transforming growth factor-alpha. In "Growth Factors in Perinatal Development" (R. C. Tsang, J. A. Lemons, and W. F. Balistreri, eds.), pp. 21-38. Raven Press, New York.

LeRoith, D., Adamo, M., Werner, H„ and Roberts, C. T., Jr. (1995). Molecular and cellular biology of the insulin-like growth factors. In "Molecular Endocrinology" (B. D. Weintraub, ed.). Raven Press, Ltd., New York.

Maness, L. M., Kastin, A. J., Weber, J. T., Banks, W. A., Beckman, B. S., and Zadina, J. E. (1994). The neurotrophins and their receptors: structure, function, and neuropathology. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 18, 143-159.

Matsui, T. (1994). Platelet derived growth factor system in human oncogenesis and its signaling pathways. In "Growth Factors: Cell Growth, Morphogenesis, and Transformation" (T. Nakamura, and K. Matsumoto, eds.), Gann Monograph on Cancer Research 42, pp. 1-12. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, Ann Arbor, MI, London, Tokyo.

Matsumoto, K, and Nakamura, T. (1994). Pleiotropic roles of HGF in mitogenesis, morphogenesis, and organ regeneration. In "Growth Factors: Cell Growth, Morphogenesis, and Transformation" (T. Nakamura, and K. Matsumoto, eds.), Gann Monograph on Cancer Research 42, pp. 91-112. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, Arm Arbor, MI, London, Tokyo.

McDonald, N., Murray-Rust, J., and Blundell, T. (1989). Structure-function relationships of growth factors and their receptors. Br. Med. Bull. 45, 554-569.

Russell, W. E., and Van Wyk, J. J. (1995). Peptide growth factors. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. DeGroot, ed.), 3rd ed. Vol. 1, pp. 25903623. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.

Sun, P. D., and Davies, D. R. (1995). The cysteine-knot growth-factor superfamily. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 24, 269-291.

Waterfield, M. D. (1989). Growth factor receptors. Br. Med. Bull. 45, 541-553.

C. Research Papers

Cunningham, B. C., Ultsch, M., de Vos, A. M., Mulkerrin, M. G., Clauser, K. R., and Wells, J. A. (1991). Dimerization of the extracellular domain of the human growth hormone receptor by a single hormone molecule. Science 254, 821-825.

Daopin, A., Piez, K. A., Ogawa, Y., and Davies, D. R. (1992). Crystal structure of transforming growth factor-/3-2: An unusual fold for the superfamily. Science 257, 369-373. de Vos, A. M., Ultsch, M., and Mossiakoff, A. (1992). Human growth hormone and extracellular domain of its receptor: Crystal structure of the complex. Science 255, 306-212. Schlunegger, M. P., and Griitter, M. G. (1992). An unusual feature revealed by the crystal structure at 2.2 A resolution of human transforming growth factor-/3-2. Nature 358, 430-434.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment