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Beta Switch Program

Beta Switch Program by Sue Heintze

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Corticosterone

11-Deoxycorticosterone

Cortisol (fasciculata & reticularis cells)

Corticosterone

11-Deoxycorticosterone

Cortisol (fasciculata & reticularis cells)

HO, SO

Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA Sulfate

(DHEA) (reticularis cells)

FIGURE 10-6 Structures of major hormones of the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone is secreted from the outer layer of the adrenal cortex, the zona glomerulosa. Two forms are in equilibrium, as shown in (A). (b) The structures of Cortisol, the major human product of the zona fasciculata, together with corticosterone and deoxycorticosterone. (C) The structures of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative secreted from the inner layer of cells of the cortex, the zona reticularis.

coids are so named because they influence the storage of carbohydrate macromolecules in the form of energy supplies (glycogen), which can be tapped by the conversion of glycogen to glucose on a minute-to-minute basis by epinephrine for instantly usable energy in "flight or fight" situations or for the expenditure of "nervous energy." Many other hormones are involved in stress, including glucagon, growth hormone, prolactin, /3-endorphin, vasopressin, angiotensin II, and prostaglandins.

Thus, we can classify two types of stressors: those that are relatively long-term and evoke glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex, such as intensive cold, prolonged loud noise, serious injury, burns, surgery, and changes in the environment necessitating adaptation by the organism with serious consequences if adaptation does not occur. The alarm emergency or shorter term stressor would be an event of a surprise nature, such as fright induced by a specific happening. This type of stressor would primarily evoke the secretion of epinephrine (and norepinephrine) from the adrenal medulla as well as Cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Both types usually occur simultaneously; one chain of events (Figure 10-7) in operation does not preclude the utilization of the other pathway. There are, however, certain conditions that can cause the pathways to operate separately. The sympathetic system generating epinephrine and norepinephrine is activated when the organism attempts to escape from or deal with the environmental challenge, the flight or flight response.

Humoral pathway

Stress

Neuronal pathway

Renin-angiotensin pathway

Long term stress

Stress

Neuronal pathway

Visceral brain

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Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

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