A cancer cell is a cell that has escaped the controls that maintain its normal differentiated function within the homeostatic mechanism of the body. This definition probably is applicable to most cancer cells and therefore emphasizes the role of signal transduction in the loss of organismic control. Thus, cancer may be viewed as an aberration of the signal transduction process or, putting it in simpler terms, it derives from a cell that has escaped or lost the ability to respond to controls from outside (or inside) the cell. This often takes the form of developing a mechanism in which a growth signal is permanently turned on, in contrast to the normal situation in which the cell only responds when there is a timely signal, turning on a specific receptor within or on the surface of the cell. As it happens, some of the oncogenes that are expressed by cancer cells are parts of cell membrane growth hormone receptors that are ligand independent, constitutively activated, and positively signal the cells to divide.

There are several aspects of hormones related to the cancer problem: (1) cancer is sometimes generated through the action of hormonally active substances, for example, the effect of diethylstilbestrol, a potent estrogenic substance; (2) the development of cancer is often connected with the cellular expression of oncogenes [many oncogenes function in signal transduction by replacing the normal function of a receptor, transducing protein, or transactivating factor(s)]; (3) many tumors inappropriately produce (ectopic production) biologically active levels of hormones that create dysfunctions of the signal transduction process and produce abnormal effects; (4) hormones and antihormones are used to treat certain types of cancer; and (5) the status of hormone receptors, for example, in breast cancer, can form the basis of staging the cancer and its capacity for therapy. These topics will be considered in this chapter.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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