thyrotropin folii tropin odorant F3
m2 muscarinic acetylcholine m3 muscarinic acetylcholine m 1 muscarinic acetylcholine m4 muscarinic acetylcholine D2 dopamine D3 dopamine D4 dopamine octopamine RDC4
02b-adrenergic adenosine A1 adenosine A2 serotonin lc serotonin 2 fij-adrenergic D1 dopamine rat cannabinoid human cannabinoid adrenocorticotropin melanotropin neurokinin a substance K neuromedin K rhodopsin endothelin A endothelin B ¡¡I bombesin neuromedin B f-metleuphe vasoactive intestinal peptide bradykinin —> angiotensin II
C5a ■--thrombin ^neurotensin — thromboxane
FIGURE 5-38 Multiple sequence alignment of melanocortin receptors and other representative members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. Amino acid sequences were obtained from the Protein Identification Resource (PIR) database and aligned with the melanocortin receptors with the Pileup program, version 7.0, from the Genetics Computer Group analysis software (Madison, WI.) The branch length is proportional to the similarity between sequences, which suggests that the melanocortin and cannabinoid receptors are members of a distinct subfamily of the G-protein-coupled receptors. Reproduced with permission from Mountjoy, K. G„ Robbins, L. S., Mortrud, M. T., and Cone, R. D. (1992). The cloning of a family of genes that encode the melanocortin receptors. Science 257, 1248-1251.
and pregnancy. Galactorrhea is often controlled by reducing prolactin secretion using a drug (bromocryp-tine) that inhibits prolactin formation and release.
Hyperproduction of growth hormone can result from a tumor of the somatotroph (acidophil pituitary adenoma) during growth and result in gigantism. The process of growth is accelerated under this condition, leading to giants. This form of GH overproduction is relatively rare. If left untreated, the tumor destroys the functional gland, impairing the other pituitary hormones and resulting in death. This disease usually involves enlargement of the sella, but is principally manifested by unusually high circulating levels of GH. Therapy involves removal of the acidophil tumor, but sometimes high levels of GH persist even after surgical intervention.
Acromegaly is also relatively uncommon. There are two metabolic types of acromegaly: those in which circulating GH levels fall after glucose administration and those whose GH levels are unaffected by glucose. The precise explanation of acromegaly is unknown, and some views infer that humans can revert to a more primitive phase and resemble the Neanderthal man.
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