thyrotropin folii tropin odorant F3

m2 muscarinic acetylcholine m3 muscarinic acetylcholine m 1 muscarinic acetylcholine m4 muscarinic acetylcholine D2 dopamine D3 dopamine D4 dopamine octopamine RDC4

02b-adrenergic adenosine A1 adenosine A2 serotonin lc serotonin 2 fij-adrenergic D1 dopamine rat cannabinoid human cannabinoid adrenocorticotropin melanotropin neurokinin a substance K neuromedin K rhodopsin endothelin A endothelin B ¡¡I bombesin neuromedin B f-metleuphe vasoactive intestinal peptide bradykinin —> angiotensin II

C5a ■--thrombin ^neurotensin — thromboxane

FIGURE 5-38 Multiple sequence alignment of melanocortin receptors and other representative members of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. Amino acid sequences were obtained from the Protein Identification Resource (PIR) database and aligned with the melanocortin receptors with the Pileup program, version 7.0, from the Genetics Computer Group analysis software (Madison, WI.) The branch length is proportional to the similarity between sequences, which suggests that the melanocortin and cannabinoid receptors are members of a distinct subfamily of the G-protein-coupled receptors. Reproduced with permission from Mountjoy, K. G„ Robbins, L. S., Mortrud, M. T., and Cone, R. D. (1992). The cloning of a family of genes that encode the melanocortin receptors. Science 257, 1248-1251.

and pregnancy. Galactorrhea is often controlled by reducing prolactin secretion using a drug (bromocryp-tine) that inhibits prolactin formation and release.

Hyperproduction of growth hormone can result from a tumor of the somatotroph (acidophil pituitary adenoma) during growth and result in gigantism. The process of growth is accelerated under this condition, leading to giants. This form of GH overproduction is relatively rare. If left untreated, the tumor destroys the functional gland, impairing the other pituitary hormones and resulting in death. This disease usually involves enlargement of the sella, but is principally manifested by unusually high circulating levels of GH. Therapy involves removal of the acidophil tumor, but sometimes high levels of GH persist even after surgical intervention.

Acromegaly is also relatively uncommon. There are two metabolic types of acromegaly: those in which circulating GH levels fall after glucose administration and those whose GH levels are unaffected by glucose. The precise explanation of acromegaly is unknown, and some views infer that humans can revert to a more primitive phase and resemble the Neanderthal man.


A. Books

DeGroot, L. J. (1995). "Endocrinology," 3rd ed., Vol. 1. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA. Ganong, W. F. (1995). "Review of Medical Physiology," 17th ed.

Appleton and Lange, Norwalk, CT. Harvey, S., Scanes, C. G., and Daughaday, W. H. (1995). "Growth

Hormone." CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Melmed, S. (1995). "The Pituitary." Blackwell Science. Rang, H. P., Dale, M. M., Ritter, J. M„ and Gardner, P. (1995). "Pharmacology." Churchill, Livingstone, NY.

B. Review Articles

Casman, D., Lyman, S. D., Idzerda, R. L., et al. (1990). A new cytokine receptor superfamily. Trends Biochem Sei. 15, 265-270. Chawla, R. K., Parks, J. S., and Rudman, D. (1983). Structural variants of human growth hormone: Biochemical, genetic and clinical aspects. Annu. Rev. Med. 34, 519-547. Cooke, N. E. (1995). Prolactin: Basic Physiology. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. DeGroot, ed.), 3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 368-393. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA. Daughaday, W. H. (1995). Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, and acromegaly. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. De Groot, ed.), 3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 303-329. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA. Gammeltoft, S., and Kahn, C. R. (1995). Hormone signaling via membrane receptors. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. DeGroot, ed.), 3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 17-65. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA. Guillemin, R. (1980). Beta-lipotropin and endorphins: Implications of current knowledge. In "Neuroendocrinology" (D. T. Krieger and J. C. Hughes, eds.), p. 70. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Harvey, S., and Hull, K. L. (1995). Growth Hormone Action: Growth Hormone Receptors. In "Growth Hormone" (S. Harvey, C. G. Scanes, and W. H. Daughaday, eds.), pp. 303-335. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Imura, H. (1995). Adrenocorticotropic hormone. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. De Groot, ed.), 3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 355-367. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.

Kohn, L. D., Ban, T., Okajima, F., Shimura, H., Shimura, Y., Hidaka, A., Guiliani, C, Napolitano, G., Kosugi, S., Ikuyama, S., Akamizu, T., Tahara, K., and Saji, M. (1995). Cloning and regulation of glycoprotein hormone receptor genes. In "Molecular Endocrinology" (B. D. Weintraub, ed.), pp. 133-153. Raven Press, New York.

Li, C. H. (1982). "Biochemical Actions of Hormones" (G. Litwack, ed.), Vol. 9, pp. 1-41. Academic Press, New York.

Miller, E. E. (1995). Role of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the control of anterior pituitary hormone secretion. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. De Groot, ed.), 3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 178-191. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.

Molitch, M. E. (1995). Prolactin. In "The Pituitary" (S. Melmed, ed.), pp. 136-186. Blackwell Science.

Moyle, W. R., and Campbell, R. K. (1995). Gonadotropins. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. De Groot, ed.), 3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 230-241. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.

Parks, J. S„ Pfäffle, R. W„ Brown, M. R., Abdul-Latif, H„ and Mea-cham, L. R. (1995). Growth hormone deficiency. In "Molecular Endocrinology" (B. D. Weintraub, ed.), pp. 473-490. Raven Press, New York.

Phillips, L. S., and Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R. (1980). Somatomedins. New Engl. J. Med. 302, 438-446.

Pierce, J. G., Faith, M. R„ Guidice, L. C, and Reeve, J. R. (1976). Structure and structure-function relationships in glycoprotein hormones. Ciba Found. Symp. Excerpta Med. 41, 225-250.

Sara, V. R., and Hall, K. (1990). Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins. Physiol. Rev. 70, 591.

Sarapura, V. D., Samuels, M. H„ and Ridgway, C. E. (1995). Thyroid-stimulating hormone. In "The Pituitary" (S. Melmed, ed.), pp. 187-229. Blackwell Science.

Wass, J. A. H., and Besser, M. (1995). Tests of pituitary function. In "Endocrinology" (L. J. De Groot, ed.), 3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 487-496. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.

C. Research Papers

Bedi, G. S„ French, W. C, and Bahl, O. P. (1982). Structure of carbohydrate units of ovine luteinizing hormone. J. Biol Chem. 257,43454355.

Eipper, B. A., and Mains, R. E. (1981). J. Biol. Chem. 256,5689-5695.

Goddard, A. D„ Covello, R., Luoh, S.-M., Clackson, T„ Attie, K. M., Gesundheit, N., Rundle, A. C, Wells, J. A., and Carlsson, L. M. S. (1995). Mutations of the growth hormone receptor in children with idiopathic short stature. New Engl.}. Med. 333,10931098.

Kelly, P. A., Djiane, }. Postel-Vinay, M. C, and Edery, M. (1991). The prolactin/growth hormone receptor family. Endocr. Rev. 12, 235-251.

Li, C. H. (1982). Beta-endorphin. Cell 31, 504-505.

Mountjoy, K. G., Robbins, L. S., Mortrud, M. T., and Cone, R. D. (1992). The cloning of a family of genes that encode the melano-cortin receptors. Science 257, 1248-1251.

Raikhinstein, M., Zohan, M., and Hanukoglu, I. (1994). cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of the bovine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1220, 329-332.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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