Gastrointestinal Hormones

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Background

B. Resume of the Gastrointestinal Hormones

C. Problems of Food Processing and Digestion

II. ANATOMICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS

A. Gastroenteropancreatic System

B. Stomach

C. Small and Large Intestines

D. Hormone-Secreting Cells: Their Distribution in the Gastroenteropancreatic Complex

E. Coordination of Gastroenteropancreatic Hormone Release

F. Brain-Gut Axis

III. CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY

A. General Relationships

B. Cholecystokinin (CCK)

C. Gastrin

D. Secretin

E. Enkephalins

F. Enteroglucagon

H. Motilin

I. Neurotensin

J. Pancreatic Polypeptide Family (PP) K. Somatostatin

L. Bombesin and Tachykinin Peptide Families M. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide N. Endothelin O. Galanin

P. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)

IV. BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ACTIONS

A. Gastric Acid Secretion

B. Pancreatic, Biliary, and Intestinal Secretions

C. Motor Functions of the Intestinal Tract

V. CLINICAL ASPECTS A. Peptic Ulcer Disease

B. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

C. Carcinoid Syndrome References

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