Detail Of Liver Lobule

Endothelial cells

Fat "storing cell

Gap between endothelial cells

FIGURE 10-5 Anatomical components of the liver and hepatocyte, a major target cell for glucocorticoids. This drawing was made originally by Dr. Laurie Paavola, Department of Anatomy, Temple Medical School, and is redrawn here with her permission. Other work with a polyclonal antibody to the glucocorticoid receptor indicates that the hepatocyte is the cell in the liver having a large number of receptor antigens, while the bile and Kupffer cells have little or no antigenic activity.

amounts of Cortisol circulating in the bloodstream than the unstressed person. The steroid acts on many of the tissues of the body to an extent determined by the number of glucocorticoid receptors present in the cell of a particular tissue. The liver, which contains about 65,000 receptor molecules per cell in an experimental animal (rat), predominates as a major target of cortico-sterone, the principal glucocorticoid in rat. Other important targets are the lymphoid cells, thymus gland, and kidney. Many other tissues seem to have enough receptor molecules to provide a response to stress, especially if it is long-term. In fact, most tissues of animals or of cells in culture seem to contain measurable amounts of receptor, making it theoretically possible for nearly all tissues of the body to be affected by stress.

Studies using antibodies to the receptor indicate that rat biliary and Kupffer cells of the liver contain small amounts of receptor, and cells of the pars intermedia have small amounts or lack receptor altogether. Long-term stress may be distinguished from short-term stress, often referred to as "alarm" or "fright." In short-term stress, the minute-to-minute changes in metabolism are under the control of catecholamine hormones, primarily epinephrine, secreted by the adrenal medulla. The secretion of epinephrine is in turn controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Both stresses, long-or short-term, lead to the release of glucocorticoids. Figure 10-7 delineates the overall pathways by which the two types of stress call into play the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones or epinephrine. Glucocorti-


18-Aldehyde form of Aldosterone (glomerulosa cells)


18-Aldehyde form of Aldosterone (glomerulosa cells)


11 -Hemiacetal form (major form in solution)

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Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.

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