Calcium Regulating Hormones Vitamin D Parathyroid Hormone Calcitonin

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Background Information

B. Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis

II. ANATOMICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS

A. Parathyroid Gland

B. Calcitonin-Secreting Cells

C. Intestine

D. Kidney

E. Bone

III. CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY

A. Parathyroid Hormone

B. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein

C. Calcitonin

D. Vitamin D

IV. BIOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE

A. Parathyroid Hormone

B. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein

C. Calcitonin

D. Vitamin D and Its Metabolites

E. Biology of Bone Remodeling

F. Integrated Actions of Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, and Vitamin D Metabolites

V. CLINICAL ASPECTS

A. Parathyroid Hormone

B. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein

C. Calcitonin

D. Vitamin D

E. Osteoporosis References

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