Edematous Disorders

Congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, and hepatic cirrhosis are a series of disorders characterized by excessive retention by the body of Na+ and water, which leads to edema. Frequently there is an associated stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone production. The pathophysiology of these diseases is complex, and disorders can usually be found in the physiological endocrine matrix of the renin-angiotensin system-sympathetic nervous system activity, the humoral vasodilatory and/ or natriuretic factors, and the vasopressin system.

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