FIGURE 5-6 (A) Schematic representation of the human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) /8-subunit gene. The bars indicate the three exons and the lines, which are not drawn to scale, represent intronic DNA. The solid areas represent the coding regions, and the open areas represent the untranslated regions. The intronic DNA is removed by splicing to form mature mRNA. The numbers indicate the size in nucleotides of each exon or intron. (B) Schematic representation of the human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) /8-subunit promoter. The transcriptional start site is indicated by the arrow and the TATA box is shown. The numbers above the line denote the position of the nucleotides relative to the transcriptional start site set at +1. The boxes under the line indicate the regions important for T3 binding (white boxes), Pit-1 binding (black boxes), and thyro-tropin-releasing hormone (TRH) response (dotted boxes). Reproduced with permission from Sarapura, V. D., Samuels, M. H., and Ridgway, C. E. (1995). Thyroid-stimulating hormone. In "The Pituitary" (S. Melmed, ed.), pp. 187-229. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

release. It cross-reacts with an antiserum directed against the C-terminal portion of ACTH, suggesting that it may be related to CLIP, the 18-39 fragment of ACTH (see Figure 5-11). This hormone has been named /3-cell tropin and is present in the plasma of ob/ob mice. It potentiates glucose-induced insulin secretion. It appears to have properties identical to those of ACTH22_39 prepared from ACTH (Figure 5-11).

G. Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

Human MSH occurs in two major forms, a-MSH and /3-MSH. a-MSH is —1500 molecular weight and consists of 13 amino acid residues. /3-MSH is ~2600

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