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FIGURE 1-8 Overview of the processes of transcription (top) and translation (bottom). The transcriptional process consists of synthesis of RNA by RNA polymerase II, capping at the 5' end, and addition of poly(A) at the 3' end. The positive charge at the cap is the result of methylation of the nitrogen at the 7-position of guanine. The mRNA is further processed by excision of the intron, leading to the mature mRNA that is translated in the cytoplasm. Reproduced from Alberts B, Bray D, Lewis J, Raft, M, Roberts K, and Watson, J. D. (1983). "Molecular Biology of the Cell." Garland Publishing, New York.

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