Info

FIGURE 9-14 Functional morphology of an osteoclast. This simplified diagram indicates some of the functional elements of the osteoclast. Numerous receptors for calcitonin and vitronectin are expressed in the plasma membrane. The vitronectin receptors appear to function to facilitate the binding of osteoclasts to bone matrix the receptor utilizes the recognition sequence of Arg-Gly-Asp on the bone matrix protein. Osteoclasts possess a significant level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase...

Classification of PGs

Although the many structures in this group of compounds may seem bewildering at first (Figure 16-2), there are some simple generalizations that can be set forth to allow a facile understanding of structure-function relationships. PGs arise from a cyclic endoperoxide generated by the enzyme system, PG synthetase. This is a complex of enzymes, including cyclooxygen-ase, required to produce the key intermediate, the cyclic endoperoxide derivative of arachidonic acid or other fatty acids. There is...

Daysqggsn

FIGURE 17-6 Sequences of thymic hormones. Abbreviations Ac, acetyl x, unknown B, Asp or Asn Z, Glu or Gin. Underlined sequence represents a nuclear translocation signal. t-cell system (cell mediated) transplant and tumor mmunity also viral, mycobacterial fungal and protozoal immunity b-cell system (antibodies) bacterial and viral immunity FIGURE 17-7 Hypothetical model illustrating the major interactions between the central nervous system and the neuroendocrine thymus. From Goldstein, A. L.,...

Compilation of Most Known Hormones in Higher Mammals and Humans

Amino acid-derived hormones Adrenals Bursa of Fabricius (chickens) Bursin Dopamine (also belived to be PIF) y-Aminobutyric acid GABA Octopamine Thyroid parathyroid gland Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyrone (T3) Autoimmune antibodies acting like unregulated hormones Autoimmune anti-insulin Long-acting thyroid stimulator LATS

S

Figure 12-6 Structural relationships of the inhibins, activins, and Mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF). All three protein hormones belong to the transforming growth factor- 3 gene family. The inhibins and activins are derived from the same precursor protein there is one precursor for the a-subunit and two precursors for the 3-subunit. The inhibins are disulfide-linked heterodimers of a 3A or a 3p. The activins are disulfide-linked hetero- or homodimers of the 3-subunits ( 3aj3a, PbPb, 3a 3b)....

Biochemistry

Formation and Neurosecretion of Posterior Pituitary Hormones VP and OT are formed in the cell bodies of neurons located in the hypothalamus. Separate neurons synthesize each type of hormone and its accompanying NP. Neuronal cell bodies synthesizing OT are located primarily, but not exclusively, in the paraventricular nucleus, whereas neuronal cell bodies synthesizing VP are located primarily, but not exclusively, in the supraoptic nucleus. Although there have been claims that the same cell...

Pga

Lee, in Principles of Endocrinology (R. H. Williams, ed.) 5th ed., p 855. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1975. series (PGA) is the least polar or hydrophilic, is the most lipophilic, and has no hydroxyl groups substituted on the five-membered ring, but rather a ketone group and an unsaturation (Table 16-1). These classes of PGs have characteristic actions depending on the five-membered-ring substituents, as shown in Table 16-1. Inspection of Table 16-1...

Aaaa

FIGURE 7-17 Synopsis of the regulation of expression of the insulin gene. The primary transcription of the insulin gene is selectively stimulated by elevated cAMP and or glucose. In addition, insulin mRNA levels are stabilized at high glucose levels, which also selectively stimulates the translation of insulin mRNA at the levels of initiation, elongation, and interaction of signal recognition particles (SRP) with a docking protein (DP) Modified with permission from Steiner, D. F., Bell, G. I.,...

Hormone Receptor Status Of Breast Cancers

Breast cancer is diagnosed at a level of about 100,000-120,000 new cases per year in the United States, and 40,000 die each year from this most common cause of cancer in women. For some time breast cancers have been classified on the basis of receptor measurements from biopsy specimens. Thus, in general, these cancers fall into three categories estrogen receptor (ER) positive and progesterone receptor (PR) positive ER positive and PR negative and ER negative and PR negative. These measurements...

Kallikreins and Kinins

The kallikreins are a group of serine proteases known as kininogens, which act on plasma -globulins to release kinins such as bradykinin. Bradykinin is the most potent vasodilator substance known. The kallikrein-kinin system is linked in the endothelial cell to stimulate the production of another vasodilator, the prostacyclins. Two classes of kallikreins have been identified (a) those present in plasma and (b) those present in organs, including the kidney, salivary glands, and pancreas. The...

P Q

FIGURE 7-7 Primary amino acid sequences of human and hagfish insulins. In addition, the amino acid sequences of 70 other vertebrate insulins are known, and the substitutions that occur at each position (indicated as other) are shown for comparison. The invariant residues are enclosed in boxes. Reproduced with permission from Steiner, D. F. Bell, G. I., Tager, H. S. and Rubenstein, A. H. (1995). Chemistry and biosynthesis of the islet hormones Insulin, islet amyloid polypeptide (amylin),...

Clinical Aspects

Hypocalcemia Female And Male Pdf

The common disorders of the parathyroid gland fall into two main categories (1) those associated with hypofunction (e.g., hypoparathyroidism) and (2) those associated with hyperfunction (e.g., hyperparathyroidism). Hyperparathyroidism is the most common disorder involving the parathyroid glands. Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disorder of mineral metabolism characterized by a defect in the normal feedback control of PTH secretion by the plasma calcium concentration. Secondary...

Growth Hormone

The sequence of human GH is given in Figure 5-3. Human GH is a peptide containing two disulfide bonds with a molecular weight of 22,000, although a smaller variant of 20,000 accounts for about 10 of GH and lacks amino acids 32-46 through processing of the GH mRNA precursor. A large form of GH is represented by a dimer stabilized by an interchain disulfide bond, and larger forms have been described. The forms larger than 22,000 probably are not physiologically important. A glycosylated form of...

A I B I

Pregnan-3 3-ol (20) Pregnan-3a-ol (21) Pregnan-3 3-ol (20) Pregnan-3a-ol (21) FIGURE 2-4 Structural consequences resulting from the reduction of pregnan-3-one. The orientations of a- and 3-hydroxyls of compounds 20 and 21 as equatorial (e) or axial (a) substituents, respectively, on the chair version of the A rings are shown in the bottom row. FIGURE 2-4 Structural consequences resulting from the reduction of pregnan-3-one. The orientations of a- and 3-hydroxyls of compounds 20 and 21 as...

Relation Of Some Hormones To Carcinogens And Development Of Cancer From Inappropriate Hormonal Treatment

Some time ago it was recognized that certain well-known carcinogenic substances structurally resembled steroid hormones. These carcinogens had been shown to produce tumors in experimental animals. In this context, the structures of benzo a pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz anthracene can be compared to the structure of estradiol (Figure 20-1). The structural similarities are even more apparent when the molecules are aligned and overlaid as shown in Figure 20-2. It thus is not surprising that steroid...

Y E V

FIGURE 1-42 Zinc finger motifs present in hormone response elements of steroid receptors. (A) Generic representation of a Zn+ finger. A highly schematic model for the general conformation of the DNA-binding domain is shown with each amino acid represented by a sphere the polypeptide chain in each finger is actually thought to be folded into a complex globular conformation. (B) Schematic view of how four such zinc fingers might bind to a specific DNA sequence. Each zinc finger is postulated to...

Anatomical And Morphological Relationships

Anatomy Gland Yearbook

The anatomy and histology of the thymus gland are pictured in Figure 17-3. The gland lies above the heart, as shown in Figure 17-3A, and is very much larger in figure 17-3 Anatomy and histology of the thymus gland. (A) Locations and comparative sizes at different stages of growth. Reproduced from Kahle, W., Leonhardt, H., and Platzer, W. (1978). Color Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy, Vol. 2, p. 93. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, IL. (B, p. 686) Histological organization of the...

Preface to the First Edition

The past decades have brought startling advances in our understanding of endocrinology. Of paramount importance is the large increase in the number of legitimate hormones, which now number more than 100, as well as the application of the modern concepts and methodologies of biochemistry and molecular biology to endocrinological research. It is now feasible to approach virtually all classical topics in endocrinology at the cellular and molecular levels. This book provides a comprehensive...

O X

Hyperparathyroidism Hypoparathyroidism Pseudohypoparathyroidism Secondary hyperparathyroidism Cirrhosis Drug induced metabolism Obstructive jaundice Hypophosphatemic VDRR Vitamin D-dependent rickets FIGURE 9-16 Human disease states related to vitamin D. principal daughter metabolites la,25 OH 2D3 and 24,25 OH 2D3 3 conditions that may be due to variations in organ responsiveness to these dihydroxylated metabolites and 4 perturbations in the integrated interactions of these metabolites with PTH...

Ch3o

Follows increases in glycogenolysis and gluconeogene-sis in the liver, increased gluconeogenesis in skeletal muscle, increased inotropic effect affecting the force of muscular contraction in the heart , increased amylase secretion by the salivary gland, relaxation of the uterine musculature, conversion of triglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol in adipose, elevations in blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output depending on amount of catecholamine , and dilation of bronchial...

Thyrotropic Hormone

Nerve Growth Factor Ngf Pathway

Like other polypeptide hormone receptors, TSH receptor is located in the cellular membrane of thyroid cells. A functional model of the TSH receptor has been hypothesized and is shown in Figure 5-35. TSHR is a seven-membrane-spanning domain receptor with a large extracellular domain. TSH binding is in the extracellular domain, and trypsinization of cells containing the receptor generates a 15-30-kDa peptide capable of binding TSH. Apparently the loops themselves are not involved in ligand...

Nerve Growth Factor

Growth Hormone And Ngf

NGF was discovered in the mouse submaxillary gland. It has a molecular weight of 13,259 and exists in a complex of 140 kDa. The complex contains two molecules of NGF 3-subunits together with two a-and two y-subunits the y-subunit is arginine esterase . Apparently the identity of the a-subunits remains unclear. Although NGF is not a mitogen, it prevents apop-tosis of neurons. A now classical demonstration of the induction of apoptosis is the withdrawal of NGF, usually in chick embryos, that...

Aldosterone Receptor

Like the glucocorticoid receptor, the mineralocorti-coid receptor resides in the cytoplasm in the unoccupied by ligand form and also appears to contain hsp 90 in a heteromeric structure. Different from the glucocorticoid receptor, it appears that aldosterone binds in the binding pocket of the mineralocorticoid receptor D ring first, as contrasted with A ring first in the case of the glucocorticoid receptor Figure 10-28 . In addition, there seem to be three possible configurations of...

Cortical collecting duct cell

FIGURE 15-9 Cellular model of the actions of aldosterone on Na and K transport processes in the mucosal cells of the collecting duct of the kidney. In the absence of aldosterone, there is only basal update of Na from the lumen by the Na permease and a basal rate of translocation of the Na across the cell so as to exit the peritubular side of the cell via the action of a Na K ATPase. The figure illustrates the five steps which are believed to be operative in the presence of aldosterone. Step J ,...

Anatomical And Morphological Relationships Of The Male Reproductive System

Human Ejaculate Diagram

The male reproductive system comprises the gonads two testes , excretory ducts epididymis, vas deferens, and ejaculatory duct , and several accessory structures prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands, and penis . These are illustrated in Figure 12-1. The key steps of organogenesis of the sexually indifferent, yet chromosomally determined male gonad are discussed in Chapter 14. The presentation of this chapter will begin with the generation of the morphologically identifiable testes....

Actions of Melatonin on Anterior Pituitary

Melatonin inhibits the secretion of LH and FSH induced by GnRH. In particular, this has been demonstrated with anterior pituitary cells obtained from 1-to 20-day-old rats. The inhibition by melatonin was effective in the range 0.1-1.0 nM when the cells were obtained from animals that were 5, 10, or 15 days of age. Suppression of anterior pituitary hormone release ranged to 50 of the full response to GnRH, as shown in Figure 18-11. Melatonin interferes either with the GnRH stimulation of...

A ring contacts

FIGURE 10-27 Completed predicted structure of the GR HBD family, based on an alignment with thermitase, in crossed stereo. The original structure is in color, therefore some details are not obvious. Locations of contacts and point of entry of the steroid molecule are indicated by the current authors of HORMONES. The model is reproduced by permission from Goldstein, R. A., Katzenellenbogen, J. A., Luthey-Schulten, Z. A., Seielstad, D. A., and Wolynes, P. G. 1993 . Three-dimensional model for the...

Xl Acth Receptor

The ACTH receptor has now been cloned from several sources, including bovine and human. The bovine receptor has 297 amino acid residues deduced from the DNA and a molecular weight equivalent of about 33,260. It is a seven-membrane-spanning domain receptor. It is reported to have glycosylations in the N-terminus. The receptor appears to have phosphorylation sites for protein kinases A and C, and the consequent participation of these kinases in ACTH FIGURE 5-37 Model of TSHR with the TSH site and...

Hormone Action And Biochemistry

Preganglionic Neuron

Biochemistry of the Chromaffin Cell of the Adrenal Medulla The relationship of the adrenal cortex to the medulla is shown in Figure 11-4. In Figure 11-4A, the vascular relationships are evident. The secretions from the cortex bathe the medulla on their way to the general circulation. Since unique environmental signals similar to those that cause epinephrine secretion from the medulla also stimulate glucocorticoid synthesis in the cortex, a ready supply of Cortisol is available to the medulla...

Gonadotropic Hormones Lh And

Characteristics and actions of LH and FSH are discussed in Chapter 13 however, brief space will be given to a discussion here. Structural considerations have also been discussed. There are similarities between LH, FSH, CG, and TSH, all of which contain an identical a-subunit. FSH and LH bind to membrane receptors in their target cells and couple to G proteins through conformational changes in ligand-receptor structures that avail specific sequences in the bound a-subunit similar to AVP arginine...

Anatomical And Morphological Relationships Of The Female Reproductive System

Ligaments Female Reproductive System

The human female reproductive system comprises the gonads two ovaries and uterine tubes, a single uterus, a vagina, external genitalia, and the mammary glands. These are diagrammed in Figure 13-1 with the exception of the mammary glands, which are diagrammed in Figure 14-5. The key steps of organogenesis of the sexually indifferent, yet chromosomally determined female gonad are discussed in Chapter 14. The presentation in this chapter will begin with the generation of a morphologically...

Division H Of Meiosis

Figure 13-3 Meiotic processses in germ cells in women as related to their age and sexual development. Modified from Odell, W. D. 1979 . The reproductive system in women. In Endocrinology L. J. DeGroot, G. F. Cahill, L. Martini, D. H. Nelson, W. D. Odell, J. T. Potts, Jr., E. Steinberger, and A. I. Winegard, eds. , Vol. 3, p. 1385. Grune amp Stratton, New York. Ovulation of a single ovum each month requires only about a total of 400 oogonia over the 30-40 year period of reproductive fertility....

RVhpid droplets V

Diagram Spermatozoa

7-. .r gt gt i i figure 12-9 Cellular organization of cells of the seminiferous tubules of a human testis. Leydig cells occur in clusters surrounded by several seminiferous tubules as well as capillaries. Reproduced with permission from Christensen, A. K. 1975 . Leydig cells. In Handbook of Physiology D. W. Hamilton and R. O. Greep, eds. , Section 7, Vol. V, pp. 57-94. Williams amp Wilkins, Baltimore, MD. important functions 1 production of unique proteins, including androgen-binding protein...

Modifying Aminergic And Peptidergic Hormones

Neuroendocrinology

FIGURE 5-1 Overview of the anterior pituitary hormones showing the connections between the aminergic hormones and neurotransmitters of the CNS, the releasing hormones from the hypothalamus, and the anterior pituitary hormones together with the organs upon which they act and their general effects. GRH, Growth hormone releasing hormone, or somatocrinin GIH, growth hormone release-inhibiting hormone, or somatostatin TRH, thyroid-stimulating hormone releasing hormone CRH, corticotropic releasing...

Hi

M2 muscarinic acetylcholine m3 muscarinic acetylcholine m 1 muscarinic acetylcholine m4 muscarinic acetylcholine D2 dopamine D3 dopamine D4 dopamine octopamine RDC4 02b-adrenergic adenosine A1 adenosine A2 serotonin lc serotonin 2 fij-adrenergic D1 dopamine rat cannabinoid human cannabinoid adrenocorticotropin melanotropin neurokinin a substance K neuromedin K rhodopsin endothelin A endothelin B I bombesin neuromedin B f-metleuphe vasoactive intestinal peptide bradykinin gt angiotensin II C5a...