References

1. Bowers CY, Chang J, Momany F, Folkers K. Effects of the enkephalins and enkephalin analogs on release of pituitary hormones in vitro. In: Maclntyne I, ed. Molecular Endocrinology Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical, 1977, pp. 287-292.

2. Guillemin R, Brazeau P, Bohlem P, Esch F, Ling N, Wehrenberg WB. Growth hormone-releasing factor from a human pancreatic tumor that caused acromegaly. Science 1982;218: 585-587.

3. Frohman LA, Downs TR, Chomczynski P. Regulation of growth hormone secretion. Front. Neuroendocrinol 1992;13:344-405.

4. Bertherat J, Bluet-Pajot MT, Epelbaum J. Neuroendocrine regulation of growth hormone. Euro J Endocrinol 1995;132:12-24.

5. Bowers CY, Momany F, Reynolds GA, Chang D, Hong A, Chang K. Structure activity relationships of a synthetic pentapeptide that specifically releases growth hormone in vitro. Endocrinology 1980;106:663-667.

6. Bowers CY, Reynolds GA, Durham D, Barrera CM, Pezzoli SS, Thorner MO. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide stimulates GH release in normal men and acts synergistically with GH-releasing hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1990;70:975-982.

7. Bowers CY. GH releasing peptides: structure and kinetics. J Pediat Endocrinol 1993;6:21-31.

8. Momany FA, Bowers CY, Reynolds GA, Chang D, Hong A, Newlander K. Design, synthesis, and biological activity of peptides which release growth hormone in vitro. Endocrinology 1981;108:31-39.

9. Momany FA, Bowers CY, Reynolds GA, Hong A, Newlander K. Conformational energy studies and in vitro and in vivo activity data on growth hormone-releasing peptides. Endocrinology 1984;114:1531-1536.

10. Smith RG, Cheng K, Schoen WR, Pong S-S, Hickey G, Jacks T, Butler B, Chan WS-S, Chaung L-YP, Judith F, Taylor J, Wyvratt MJ, Fisher MH. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue. Science 1993;260:1640-1643.

11. Micic D, Mallo F, Peino R, Cordido F, Leal-Cerro A, Garcia-Mayor RVG, Casanueva FF. Regulation of growth hormone secretion by the growth hormone releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6). J Pediat Endocrinol 1993;6:283-289.

12. Smith RG, Cheng K, Pong S-S, Leonard RJ, Cohen CJ, Arena JP, Hickey GJ, Chang CH, Jacks TM, Drisko JE, Robinson ICAF, Dickson SL, Leng G. (1996) Mechanism of action of GHRP-6 and nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogues. In: Bercu BB, Walker, RF, eds. Growth Hormone Secre-tagogues, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 147-163.

13. Howard AD, Feighner DS, Cully DF, Arena JP, Liberator PA, Rosenblum CI, Hamelin M, Hreniuk DL, Palyha OC, Anderson J, Paress PS, Diaz C, Chou M, Liu KK, Pong S-S, Chaung L-Y, Elbrecht A, Dashkevicz M, Heavens R, Rigby M, Sirinathsinghji DJS, Dean DC, Melillo DG, Patchett AA, Nargund R, Griffin PR, DeMartino JA, Gupta SK, Schaeffer JM, Smith RG, Van der Ploeg LHT. A receptor in pituitary and hypothalamus that functions in growth hormone release. Science 1996;273:974-977.

14. Smith RG, Pong S-S, Hickey G, Jacks T, Cheng K, Leonard R, Cohen CJ, Arena JP, Chang CH, Drisko J, Wyvratt M, Fisher M, Nargund R, Patchett A. (1996) Modulation of pulsatile GH release through a novel receptor in hypothalamus and pituitary gland. In: Conn PM, ed. Recent Progress In Hormone Research, Volume 51. The Endocrine Society, Maryland, 1996 pp. 261-286.

15. Strobl JS, Thomas MJ. Human growth hormone. Pharmacological Reviews 1994;46:1-34.

16. Torosian MH, ed. (1995) Growth Hormone In Critical Illness: Research and Clinical Studies. R.G. Landes Company, Texas.

17. Rudman D, Feller AG, Nagraj HS, Gergans GA, Lalitha PY, Goldberg AF, Schlenker RA, Cohn L, Rudman InG, Mattson DE. Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. N Engl J Med 1990;323:1-6.

18. Corpas E, Harman SM, Blackman MR. Human growth hormone and human aging. Endocrine Reviews 1993;14:20-39.

19. Papadakis MA, Grady D, Black D, Tierney MJ, Gooding GAW, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Growth hormone replacement in healthy older men improves body composition but not functional ability. Ann Int Med 1996;124:708-716.

20. Welle S, Thornton C, Statt M, McHenry B. Growth hormone increases muscle mass and strength but does not rejuvenate myofibrillar protein synthesis in healthy subjects over 60 years old. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:3239-3243.

21. Laron Z, Frenkel J, Gil-Ad I, Klinger B, Lubin E, Wuthrich P, Boutignon F, Lengerts V, Deghenghi R. Growth hormone releasing activity by intranasal administration of a synthetic hexapeptide (hexarelin). Clin Endocrinol 1994;41:539-541.

22. Laron Z. Growth hormone secretagogues: clinical experience and therapeutic potential. Drugs 1995;50:595-601.

23. Bowers CY. Xenobiotic growth hormone secretagogues: growth hormone releasing peptides. In: Bercu BB, Walker RF, eds. Growth Hormone Secretagogues. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996 pp. 9-28.

24. Ghigo E, Arvat E, Muccioli G, Camanni F. Growth hormone-releasing peptides. Eur J Endocrinol 1997;136:445-460.

25. McDowell RS, Elias KA, Stanley MS, Burdick DJ, Burnier JP, Chan KS, Fairbrother WJ, Hammonds G, Ingle GS, Jacobsen NE, Mortensen DL, Rawson TE, Won WB, Clark RG, Somers TC. Growth hormone secretagogues: characterization, efficacy, and minimal bioactive conformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:11,165-11,169.

26. Cheng K, Chan WW-S, Barreto A, Convey EM, Smith RG. The synergistic effects of His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 on growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor: stimulated GH release and intracellular adenosine 3',5' monophosphate accumulation in rat primary pituitary cell culture. Endocrinology 1989;124:2791-2798.

27. Schoen WR, Pisano JM, Prendergast K, Wyvratt MJ, Fisher MH, Cheng K, Chan WW-S, Butler B, Smith RG, Ball RG. A novel 3-substituted benzazepinone growth hormone secretagogue (L-692,429). J Med Chem 1994;37:897-906.

28. DeVita RJ, Frontier AJ, Schoen WR, Wyvratt MJ, Fisher MH, Cheng K, Chan WW-S, Butler BS, Smith RG. Design and synthesis of potent macrocyclic benzolactam growth hormone secretagogues. Helvetica Chimica Acta 1997;80:1244-1259.

29. Pong S-S, Chaung L-Y, Dean DC, Nargund RP, Patchett AA, Smith RG. Identification of a new G-protein coupled receptor for growth hormone secretagogues. Mol Endocrinol 1996;10:57-61.

30. Hickey G, Jacks T, Judith F, Taylor J, Schoen WR, Krupa D, Cunningham P, Clark J, Smith RG. Efficacy and specificity of L-692,429, a novel nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue in beagles. Endocrinology 1994;134:695-701.

31. Leung KH, Cohn DA, Miller RR, Doss MA, Stearns RA, Simpson RE, Feeney WP, Chiu S-HL. Pharmacokinetics and disposition of L692,429, a novel non-peptidyl growth hormone secretagogue, in preclinical species. Drug Metab Dispos 1996;24:753-760.

32. Gertz BJ, Barrett JS, Eisenhandler R, Krupa DA, Wittreich JM, Seibold JR, Schneider SH. Growth hormone response in man to L-692,429, a novel nonpeptide mimic of growth hormone releasing peptide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;77:1393-1397.

33. Aloi JA, Gertz BJ, Hartman ML, Huhn WC, Pezzoli SS, Wittreich JM, Krupa DA, Thorner MO. Neuroendocrine responses to a novel growth hormone secretagogue, L-692,429, in healthy older subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;79:943-949.

34. Gertz BJ, Sciberras DG, Yogendran L, Christie K, Bador K, Krupa D, Wittreich JM, James I. L-692,429, a nonpeptide growth hormone (GH) secretagogue, reverses glucocorticoid suppression of GH secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;79:745-749.

35. DeVita RJ, Wyvratt MJ. Benzolactam growth hormone secretagogues. Drugs of the Future 1996;21:273-281.

36. Wyvratt MJ. Nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogues. In: Bercu BB, Walker RF, eds. Growth Hormone Secretagogues. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996, pp. 103-117.

37. Patchett AA, Smith RG, Wyvratt MJ. Orally active growth hormone secretagogues. In: Borchardt RT, Freidinger RM, Sawyer T, Smith P, eds. Integration of Pharmaceutical Discovery and Development: Case Histories. Plenum Press, New York, 1998, pp. 525-554.

38. Schoen WR, Ok D, DeVita RJ, Pisano JM, Hodges P, Cheng K, Chan WW-S, Butler BS, Smith RG, Wyvratt MJ, Fisher MH. Structure activity relationships in the amino acid sidechain of L-692,429. BioMed Chem Lett 1994;4:1117-1122.

39. Ok D, Schoen WR, Hodges P, DeVita RJ, Brown JE, Cheng K, Chan WW-S, Butler BS, Smith RG, Fisher MH, Wyvratt MJ. Structure activity relationships of the non-peptidyl growth hormone secretagogue L-692,429. BioMed Chem Lett 1994;4:2709-2714.

40. Jacks T, Hickey G, Judith F, Taylor J, Chen H, Krupa D, Feeney W, Schoen W, Ok D, Fisher M, Wyvratt M, Smith R. Effects of acute and repeated intravenous administration of L-692,585, a novel non-peptidyl growth hormone secretagogue, on plasma growth hormone, IGF-1, ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, insulin, and thyroxine levels in beagles. J Endocrinol 1994;143:399-406.

41. DeVita RJ, Schoen WR, Ok D, Barash L, Brown JE, Fisher MH, Hodges P, Wyvratt MJ, Cheng K, Chan WW-S, Butler BS, Smith RG. Benzolactam growth hormone secretagogues: Replacements for the 2'-tetrazole moiety of L-692,429. BioMed Chem Lett 1994;4:1807-1812.

42. DeVita RJ, Schoen WR, Fisher MH, Frontier AJ, Pisano JM, Wyvratt MJ, Cheng K, Chan WW-S, Butler BS, Hickey GJ, Jacks TM, Smith RG. Benzolactam growth hormone secretagogues: Carboxamides as replacements for the 2'-tetrazole moiety of L-692,429. BioMed Chem Lett 1994;4:2249-2254.

43. Williams PD, Anderson PS, Ball RG, Bock MG, Carroll LA, Chiu SHL, Clineschmidt BV, Culberson JC, Erb JM, Evans BE, Fitzpatrick SL, Freidinger RM, Kaufman MJ, Lundell GF, Murphy JS, Pawluczyk JM, Perlow DS, Pettibone DJ, Pitzenberger SM, Thompson KL, Veber DF. 1-(((7,7-Dimethyl-2(S)-(2(S)-amino-4-(methylsulfonyl)butyamido)-bicyclo[2.2.1]-heptan-1 (S)-yl)methyl)sulfonyl)-4-(2-methylphenyl)piperazine (L-368,899): an orally bioavailable, non-peptide oxytocin antagonist with potential utility for managing preterm labor. J Med Chem 1994;37:565-571.

44. Nargund RP, Barakat KH, Cheng K, Chan WW-S, Butler BR, Smith RG, Patchett AA. Synthesis and biological activities of camphor-based nonpeptide growth hormone secretagogues. BioMed Chem Lett 1996;6:1265-1270.

45. Evans BE, Rittle KE, Bock MG, DiPardo RM, Freidinger RM, Whitter WL, Lundell GF, Veber DF, Anderson PS, Chang RSL, Lotti VJ, Cerino DJ, Chen TB, Kling PJ, Kunkel KA, Springer JP, Hirshfield J. Methods for drug discovery: Development of potent, selective, orally effective cholecystokinin antagonists. J Med Chem 1988;31:2235-2246.

46. Chang RSL, Lotti VJ, Monaghan RL, Birnbaum J, Stapley EO, Goetz MA, Albers-Schonberg G, Patchett AA, Liesch JM, Hensens OD, Springer JP. A potent nonpeptide cholecystokinin antagonist selective for peripheral tissues isolated from Aspergillucs alliaceus. Science 1985;230:177-179.

47. Evans BE, Bock MG, Rittle KE, DiPardo RM, Whitter WL, Veber DF, Anderson PS, Freidinger RM. Design of potent, orally effective, nonpeptidyl antagonists of the peptide hormone cholecystokinin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986;83:4918-4922.

48. Ariens EJ, Beld AJ, Rodrigues de Miranda JF, Simonis AM. The pharmacon-receptor-effector concept, A basis for understanding the transmission of information in biological systems. In: O'Brien RD, ed. The Receptors, A comprehensive treatise, Volume 1 Plenum Press, New York and London, 1979, pp. 33-91.

49. Chambers MS, Baker R, Billington DC, Knight AK, Middlemiss DN, Wong EHF. Spiropiperidines as high-affinity, selective a ligands. J Med Chem 1992;35:2033-2039.

50. Elliott JM, Cascieri MA, Davies S, Huscroft IT, Kelleher FJ, Lewis RT, MacLeod AM, Merchant KJ, Sadowski S, Stevenson GI. (1996) Serine derived NK1 antagonists, in Abstracts, 211th American Chemical Society Meeting, New Orleans, LA MEDI 075.

51. Smith PW, Cooper AWJ, Bell R, Beresford IJM, Gore PM, McElroy AB, Pritchard JM, Saez V, Taylor NR, Sheldrick RLG, Ward P. New spiropiperidines as potent and selective non-peptide tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonists. J Med Chem 1995;38:3772-3779.

52. Shah SK, Hale JJ, Qi H, Miller DJ, Dorn CP, Mills SG, Sadowski SJ, Cascieri MA, Metzger JM, Eiermann GJ, Forrest MJ, MacIntyre DE, MacCoss M. (1996) Discovery of substituted spiroindoline-piperidines as orally active dual antagonists of NK1 and NK2 receptors, in Abstracts, 212th American Chemical Society Meeting, Orlando, FL, MEDI 136.

53. de Laszlo SE, Allen EE, Li B, Ondeyka D, Rivero R, Malkowitz L, Molineaux C, Siciliano SJ, Springer MS, Greenlee WJ, Mantlo N. A nonpeptide agonist ligand of the human C5a receptor: synthesis, binding affinity, optimization and functional characterization. BioMed Chem Lett 1997;7:213-218.

54. Patchett AA, Nargund RP, Tata JR, Chen M-H, Barakat KJ, Johnston DBR, Cheng K, Chan WW-S, Butler B, Hickey, G, Jacks, T, Schleim, K, Pong S-S, Chaung L-YP, Chen HY, Frazier E, Leung KH, Chiu S-HL, Smith RG. Design and biological activities of L-163,191 (MK-0677), A potent orally active growth hormone secretagogue. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:7001-7005.

55. Chen M-H, Steiner MG, Patchett AA, Cheng K, Wei L, Chan WW-S, Butler B, JacksTM, Smith RG. Analogs of the orally active growth hormone secretagogue L-162,752. BioMed Chem Lett 1996;6:2163-2168.

56. Tata JR, Nargund RP, Murphy MM, Johnston DBR, Patchett AA, Cheng K, Wei L, Chan WW-S, Butler B, Jacks TM, Hickey G, Smith R. The synthesis and activity of spiroindane growth hormone secretagogues. BioMed Chem. Lett 1996;7:663-668.

57. Nargund RP, Chen M-H, Johnston DBR, Barakat KJ, Tata JR, Cheng K, Jacks TM, Chan WW-S, Wei L, Butler BR, Hickey GJ, Smith RG, Patchett AA. Peptidomimetic growth hormone secretagogues: synthesis and biological activities of analogs varied at the indole nucleus of the prototypical spiropiperidine L-162,752. BioMed Chem Lett 1996;6:1731-1736.

58. Jacks T, Schleim KD, unpublished data.

59. Jacks T, Smith R, Judith F, Schleim K, Frazier E, Chen H, Krupa D, Hora D Jr, Nargund R, Patchett A, Hickey G. MK-0677, a potent, novel, orally active growth hormone (GH) secretagogue: GH, insulinlike growth factor I, and other hormonal responses in beagles. Endocrinology 1996;137:5284-5289.

60. Hickey G, Jacks T, Schleim K, Frazier E, Chen H, Krupa D, Feeney W, Nargund R, Patchett A, Smith RG. Repeat administration of the GH secretagogue MK-0677 increases and maintains elevated IGF-I levels in beagles. J Endocrinol 1997;152:183-192.

61. Leung KH, Miller RR, Cohn D, Colletti A, McGowan E, Feeney WP, Nargund R, Rosegay A, Wallace MA, Chiu S-HL. (1996) International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics Proceedings, Vol. 10, 7th North American ISSX Mtg, San Diego, CA, Oct. 20-24, 1996, p. 277.

62. Copinischi G, Onderbergen AV, L'Hermite-Baleriaux M, Mendel CM, Caufriez A, Leproult R, Bolognese JA, De Smet M, Thorner MO, Van Cauter E. Effects of a 7-day treatment with a novel, orally active, growth hormone (GH) secretagogue, MK-0677, on 24 hour GH profiles, insulin-like growth factor I, and adrenocortical function in normal young men. J Clin Endocrin Metabol 1996;81:2776-2782.

63. Chapman IM, Bach MA, Van Cauter E, Farmer M, Krupa D, Taylor AM, Schilling LM, Cole KY, Skiles EH, Pezzoli SS, Hartman ML, Veldhuis JD, Gormley GJ, Thorner MO. Stimulation of the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis by daily oral administration of a GH secretagogue (MK-0677) in healthy elderly subjects. J Clin Endocrin Metabol 1996;81:4249-4257.

64. Walker RF, Shu AY, Codd EE. Binding of a growth hormone releasing hexapeptide to specific hypothalamic and pituitary binding sites. Neuropharmacology 1989;28:1139-1144.

65. Bowers CY, Veeraragavan K, Sethumadhavan K. Demonstration and characterization of the specific binding of growth hormone-releasing peptide to rat anterior pituitary and hypothalamic membranes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1991;178:31-37.

66. Dean DC, Nargund RP, Pong S-S, Chaung L-YP, Griffin P, Melillo DG, Ellsworth RL, Van Der Ploeg LHT, Patchett AA, Smith RG. Development of a high specific activity sulfur-35-labeled sulfonamide radioligand that allowed the identification of a new growth hormone secretagogue receptor. J Med Chem 1996;39:1767-1770.

67. Strader CD, Sigal IS, Register RB, Candelore MR, Rands E, Dixon RA. Identification of residues required for ligand binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987;84: 4384-4388.

68. Strnad J, Hadcock JR. Identification of a critical aspartate residue in transmembrane domain three necessary for the binding of somatostatin to the somatostatin receptor SSTR2. Biochem Biophys Res Comms 1995;216:913-921.

69. Feighner SD, Howard AD, Prendergast K, Palyha OC, Hreniuk DL, Nargund R, Underwood D, Tata JR, Dean DC, Tan CP, McKee KK, Woods JW, Patchett AA, Smith RG,Van der Ploeg LHT. (1997) Structural requirements for the activation of the human growth hormone secretagogue receptor by peptide and non-peptide secretagogues. Mol Endocrinol 1998;12:137-145.

70. Cheng K, unpublished data.

71. Momany FA, Bowers CY. (1996) Computer-assisted modeling of xenobiotic growth hormone secretagogues. In: Bercu BB, Walker, RF, eds. Growth Hormone Secretagogues Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996, pp. 73-83.

72. Yang L, Morriello G, Pan Y, Nargund RP, Barakat K, Prendergast K, Cheng K, Chan WW-S, Smith RG, Patchett AA. (1995) Tripeptide Growth Hormone Secretagogues. BioMed Chem Lett 1998;8:759-764.

73. Schwartz TW, Rosenkilde MM. Is there a 'lock' for all agonist 'keys' in 7TM receptors? Trends Pharmacol Sci 1996;17:213-216.

Diabetes Sustenance

Diabetes Sustenance

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Dealing With Diabetes The Healthy Way. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Learning How Nutritional Supplements Can Control Sugar Levels.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment