Abbreviations

Aß ß-Amyloid peptide Abl-K Abelson tyrosine kinase ABP Actin-binding protein ACh Acetyl choline

AD P-Tau AD cytosolic abnormally hyperphosphorylated Tau

AD Alzheimer's disease

ADP Adenosine monophosphate

AKAP A-Kinase anchoring protein

ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

AMPPNP Adenylylimidodiphosphate

A-P Anterior-posterior

APC Adenomatous polyposis coli

ApoER Apolipoprotein E receptor

APP Amyloid ß precursor protein

ATP Adenosine triphosphate

AUC Area under the curve

Axin Axis inhibitor

BBB Blood-brain barrier

BCL Breakpoint cluster

BGTX Bungarotoxin

BIO 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime

BMP Bone morphogenetic protein

BPNase Bisphosphate nucleotidase

ß-TRCP ß-transducin-repeat-containing protein

C/EBPa CCAAT/enhancer binding protein a

CaMK II Ca2+/calmodulin dependent kinase II

cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CDK Cyclin-dependent kinase

ChIP Chromatin immunoprecipitation

Chk1 Checkpoint kinase 1

CHO Chinese hamster ovary cells

CK Casein kinase

CLb Clearance in blood

CM Conditioned medium

Cmax Maximum concentration

CNS Central nervous system

CoMFA Comparative molecular fields analysis

COSY Correlation spectroscopy

CRMP Collapsin response mediator protein

CSNK1A Casein kinase 1 alpha

C-Terminus Carboxy terminus

CYP450 Cytochrome P450

DA Dopamine

DAAM1 Disheveled activator of morphogenesis 1

DAG Diacylglycerol

DALY Disability-adjusted life year

DAT Dopamine transporter

Dkk-1 Dickkopf-1

DMPK Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics DN Dominant negative Dsh Disheveled

DYRK Dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase

E. coli Escherichia coli

E10.5 Embryonic day 10.5

E18 Embryonic day 18

EBs Embryoid bodies

ECS Electroconvulsive seizure

ECT Electroconvulsive therapy

EDG Endothelial diffreentiating gene

EGFP Enhanced green fluorescent protein EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor eIF Eukaryotic initiation factor ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay EPSCs Epidermal stem cells ERa Estrogen receptor a

ERK Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase

ERT Estrogen replacement therapy

ESCs Embryonic stem cells

FAD Familial Alzheimer's disease

FBPase Fructose 1,6-bisphosphastase

FGF Fibroblast growth factor

FP Fluorescence polarization

Fpo% Percentage of oral bioavailability

FRAT Frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas

FRET Forster resonance energy transfer

FST Forced swim test

FTD Frontotemporal dementia

FTDP-17 Frontotemporal dementia with Parkisonism linked to chromosome 17 Fz Frizzled

GFAP Gial fibrillary acidic protein

GLUT Glucose transporter

GOLD Genetic optimisation of ligand design

GS Glycogen synthase

GSK Glycogen synthase kinase

GTPases Guanosine tri-phosphate phosphatase

HA Hemagglutin

H-bond Hydrogen bond

HD Hymenialdisine

HER2 Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HFs Hair follicles

HIV-1 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HMBC Heteronuclear multiple bond correlation HMQC Heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation HNE 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal HSCs Hematopoietic stem cells hSODl Human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene

HTS High-throughput screening

IC50 Concentration that inhibits 50%

ICM Inner cell mass

ICV Intracerebroventricular

IFE Interfollicular epidermis

IGF-1 Insulin-like growth factor 1

IGF1R Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

IMPase Inositol monophosphate phosphatase iNOS Inducible nitric oxide syntahse

IP3 Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

IPPase Inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase

IR Insulin receptor

IRK Insulin receptor kinase

IRS-1 Insulin receptor substrate 1

ISC Intestinal stem cells

K15 Keratin 15

LEF Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor LIF Leukemia inhibitory factor LPA Lysophosphatidic acid LPS Lipopolysaccharide LRCs Label-retaining cells

LRP Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein

MAOIs Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

MAP Microtubule associated protein

MAPK Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MARK Microtubule affinity regulating kinase

MBD Microtubule binding domain mDab Mammalian disabled mECCs Murine embryonal carcinoma cells

MEK MAPK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase

MEK-1K MAP (mitogen-activated protein)/ERK (extracellular-signal regulated) kinase 1 MF Microfilament Mg Magnesium

MHB Midbrain-hindbrain boundary MIP Microtubule interacting protein Mkk Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MPCs Myogenic progenitor cells MSCs Mesenchymal stem cells

MSV Murine sarcoma virus MT Microtubule NCSCs Neural crest stem cells NF Neurofilament NFkB Nuclear factor k B NF-L Neurofilament light chain NFT Neurofibrillary tangles NGF Nerve growth factor

NIDDM Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NMDA N-methyl-d-aspartic acid NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance

NOD/SCID Non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient

NOESY Nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy

NPCs Neural precursor cells

NSC Neural stem cell

^-terminus Amino-terminus

Nurr1 + Nuclear receptor-related factor 1 positive

Ob Obese

OGTT Oral glucose tolerance test

OPG Osteoprotegerin

P8 Postnatal day 8

PCR Polymerase chain reaction

PDB Protein Data Bank

PDGF Platelet-derived growth factor

PDH Pyruvate dehydrogenase

PDK Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase

PDPKs Proline-directed protein kinases

PEG Polyethylene glycol

PGM Phosphoglucomutase

PHF Paired helical filaments

PI 3-kinase Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

PI3K Phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase

PIP3 3,4,5 Phosphatidylinositol

PK/PD Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics

PKA Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase

PKA Protein kinase A

PKB Protein kinase B (also termed Akt)

PKC Protein kinase C

PNS Peripheral neurous system

PP Protein phosphatase

PP1 Protein phosphatase 1

PP2A Protein phosphatase 2A

PPAR g Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g

PrP Prion protein

PS Presenilin

PTB Phosphotyrosine-binding domain pTyr Phosphorylated tyrosine

RANK Receptor activator of nuclear factor-KappaB

RGC Retinal ganglion cell

Rsk Ribosomal protein S6 kinase

SAR Structure activity relationship

SERM Selective estrogen receptor modulator

SFRP1 Secreted Frizzled-related protein 1

sgg Shaggy

SGs Sebaceous glands

SH src Homology domain siRNA Small, interference ribonucleic acids

SLF Steel factor

SPA Scintillation proximity assay

SR Serine/arginine rich sRNAi Short interfering RNA

SSRIs Serotonin reuptake inhibitors ti/2 Half-life

T2DM Type 2 diabetes mellitus

T2K TNF Receptor associated factor 2 associated kinase

TA Transit amplifying

TCF T-Cell factor 1

TDZD Thiadiazolidinones

TFE Trifluoroethanol

TH+ Tyrosine hydroxylase positive

TNFa Tumor necrosis factor a

TR-FRET Time-resolved forster resonance energy transfer TRK Tyrosine receptor kinase UDPG Uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor VLDLR Very low density lipoprotein receptor

VM Ventral mesencephalon Vss Volume of distribution ZDF Zuker diabetic fatty zw Zeste-white

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