Getting Powerful Shapely Glutes

Booty Type Training Program

The booty type training program aims at helping women acquire great butt shapes of their choice and step out of the house with full confidence in drawing all the men's' attention. The creator of this program goes by the name of Jessica Gouthro, but many of her clients have nicknamed her America's booty type coach. Through this program, Jessica has managed to help many women achieve their body shaping movements and also improve their backside. This program will help you learn a lot including the best workouts to perform and the best diet to observe to maintain permanent butt shape of choice. Jessica has put in place 60-day certificate of total money refund guarantee to any member who feels unhappy with this program which means that this program is risk-free and worth joining. Based on the many benefits associated with this booty type training program, I highly recommend it to every woman who wants to start the journey of having a sexy butt shape and experience how men always knock on her door. Continue reading...

Booty Type Training Program Summary


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Booty Type Training Program Review

Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of blog have asked me about this ebook, which is being advertised quite widely across the Internet. So I decided to buy a copy myself to find out what all the excitement was about.

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Unlock Your Glutes

Unlock Your Glute glutes is a program designed to help the users in the reduction of belly fat. The users would only follow this program for four weeks- fifteen minutes two times a week and the program was slated to work for 4 weeks. Its main aim is to help in strengthening the users' glutes, which are the combination of muscles that strengthen the body and aid movements as well as in dealing with the weakness of the body and the frustration that comes with getting butts. The program was not created to be a quick fix. In fact, like different programs, it is tasking but not time-consuming. It affords the users to choose between carrying out their exercises in the house or at the gym. The exercises meant to be used have been explained in the book formats, the manual for the users to understand and choose the ones they are capable of doing before they proceed to follow the instructions given in the videos. In other words, the program comes in the format of a manual and videos that will help the users achieve their goal. More so, the videos are not merely videos for strengthening glutes, there are some others for strengthening your legs. Continue reading...

Unlock Your Glutes Summary

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Functional Analysis Of Hip Biomechanics

Anderson and Pandy 38 developed a muscle model that included select hip musculature to analyze a complete gait cycle. This model contained 54 independent muscles, and the results estimated each muscle's contribution to the support phase of gait. A muscle's potential for generating support was described by its contribution to the vertical ground reaction force per unit of muscle force. Of the hip muscles, the gluteus medius, maximus, and minimus provided the majority of the support in first 0 to 30 of stance (Fig. 1A) . From foot flat to just after contralateral toe-off (eg, 10-50 of stance), the gluteus maximus and posterior medius minimus contributed significantly to the vertical ground reaction force. With assistance from joints and bones to gravity, the anterior and posterior gluteus medius minimus generated nearly all the support evident in midstance. Posterior gluteus medius minumus provided support throughout midstance, while the anterior gluteus medius minimus contributed only...

BS2 Intermediate Course of the Disease

In this stage of the disease long-lasting suppuration has previously led some patients to complications such as anaemia, hypoprotein-emia and amyloidosis. This kind of wasting syndrome is generally not seen today however, other complications may occur. Carcinoma may occur, particularly on the buttocks. These cancers appear to have a particularly bad prognosis, possibly because of the local immunodeficiency caused by the long-lasting inflammation and scarring. Except for the common paraclinical signs of inflammation, such as elevated sedimentation rate, low serum iron and elevation of alpha-2 and gamma globulin, the patients are however usually in good general health and without biological repercussions, even in cases of long-lasting severe disease.

Transient radicular irritation TRI or transient neurologic symptoms TNS

Characterized by dysesthesia, burning pain, low back pain, and aching in the lower extremities and buttocks. The etiology of these symptoms attributed to radicular irritation. The symptoms usually appear within 24 hours after complete recovery from spinal anesthesia and resolve within 7 days.

Clinical manifestation

Lipodystrophy was originally described as a condition characterized by regional or generalized loss of subcutaneous fat. The non-HIV-associated forms, such as congenital or familial partial lipodystrophy, have a very low prevalence. Generally, these forms are associated with complex metabolic abnormalities and are difficult to treat. The term lipodystrophy syndrome in association with HIV, was introduced to describe a complex medical condition including the apparent abnormal fat redistribution and metabolic disturbances seen in HIV-patients receiving protease inhibitor therapy (Carr 1998). Since then, other conditions, such as osteopenia and hyperlactemia, have been summarized under the diagnosis of the lipodystrophy syndrome. But, even years after its first description, there is still no consensus on a case definition for lipodystrophy syndrome in HIV patients. Thus, the diagnosis of lipodystrophy in clinical practice often relies on a more individual interpretation than on an...

Incidence and Prevalence

It is very difficult to find reliable figures about the incidence or prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma in HS patients since there are very few publications describing follow-up of HS patients. Mostly isolated didactic cases are described, which increase clinical vigilance but do not provide predictive data. The risk of squa-mous cell carcinoma in HS has been estimated at between 1.7 and 3.2 52 . Case reports however also allow the reader to form a clinical picture of a given problem when they are sufficiently numerous. In fact, there may be as many as 100 87, 92 cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from HS reported so far in the literature these include cases arising from so-called acne conglobata of the buttocks perineum or postsacral skin 5, 52-54, 70-93 and cases of malignant degeneration occurring in patients with long-standing pilonidal disease, with a mean duration of 23 years 92 . Both these diagnostic groups may potentially be confused with HS.

Protease inhibitors PIs

All protease inhibitors can be used in combination with 2 NRTIs. PIs differ from each other in respect to their tolerability and side effects. As with adults, dyslipide-mia is associated with the use of protease inhibitors (Lainka 2002). It includes elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and decreases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) In lipodys-trophy, there is a loss of subcutaneous fat (lipoatrophy) and or a deposition of fat tissue subcutaneously or in visceral stores (lipohypertrophy) including the presence of dorsocervical fat accumulation (buffalo hump) and increased waist-to-hip ratio. Lipoatrophy is marked by thinning of subcutaneous fat in the face, buttocks, and extremities associated with a prominent appearance of peripheral veins. The body habitus changes usually occur gradually over months to years. The exact prevalence of lipodystrophy in children is unknown and there are no clear diagnostic...

Evolution and systematics

Higher primates (suborder Anthropoidea) include the broad-nosed monkeys of the New World (infraorder Platyrrhini) and the narrow-nosed monkeys and apes of the Old World (infraorder Catarrhini). Old World monkeys and apes, which are widely distributed in Africa, Asia, and Southeast Asia, are uniformly characterized by a dental formula of I2 2 C1 1 P2 2 M3 3. They hence differ from all New World monkeys by reduction in the number of premolars from 3 to 2 in each tooth row. All Old World monkeys and apes have trichromatic color vision comparable to that of humans. Old World monkeys (superfamily Cercopithecoidea) differ from apes (superfamily Hominoidea) in possessing in both upper and lower jaws four-cusped molars with their cusps linked in pairs to form transverse cutting ridges (bilophodonty). Moreover, all Old World monkeys possess prominent hardened sitting pads (ischial callosities) on the buttocks, which are supported by broad, roughened bony flanges (ischial tuberosities) on the...

Physical characteristics

The nostrils are relatively close-set and typically downward-pointing (with the notable exception of the Mentawai Islands snub-nosed leaf-monkey Simias concolor), and in some species the nose is prominently developed. Cheek pouches are never present. As in all other Old World monkeys and apes, the dental formula is I2 2 C1 1 P2 2 M3 3. The canine teeth are typically large, stabbing teeth (although generally less prominent than in cheek-pouched monkeys), and the rear edges of the upper canines are honed against the leading edges of the anterior premolars in the lower jaw. In both upper and lower jaws, all molar teeth are bilophodont. Colobine monkeys typically walk and run quadrupedally in the trees and, in some cases, on the ground. In the trees, they are typically agile climbers. In contrast to cheek-pouched monkeys, the legs are typically somewhat longer than the arms. In the hand, the thumb is generally reduced, and in the colobus monkeys it is virtually...

Thoracic pain of lower cervical origin

The association between lumbar dysfunction and pain syndromes is generally easier to correlate. The pain is usually located in the low back and referred to the buttocks or the backs of the lower limbs. Problems arise with referred pain to the pelvic area, groin and anterior aspects of the leg. Such patients may be diagnosed as suffering from inguinal or obturator hernial and nerve entrapment syndromes.

Prevention Of Wrinkles Of Photoaging

Quite apart from specific products, elimination of UVR exposure essentially prevents wrinkles. The effect of lifelong UVR avoidance is easily shown by comparison of the never-exposed skin of the buttocks to even suberythrogenic exposed skin of the face in any individual of types I to III skin. Although wrinkles usually appear only after some years of exposure and are noticeable beginning in the second or third decade of life, other seemingly benign yet insidious signs of photoaging, such as freckling, can be shown even in young children, especially those with light skin and high solar exposure as in Australia 3 . Complete avoidance of UVR is impractical, but avoidance during peak solar flux of midday is frequently possible. Protective hats and clothing are practical and highly desirable. Sunscreens of various types have definite utility in reducing UVR damage. Less well established is the potential role of a host of purported preventatives and treatments such as vitamins and...

Intramuscular Administration

The blood flow to the administration site is often the rate-limiting step in the absorption of drugs. Absorption is more rapid after injection into the deltoid than into the vastus lateralis, and is slowest after gluteal muscle injection. The drugs can be absorbed faster after administration into a buttock in males due to greater adipose tissue in females. Absorption rates increase during exercise regardless of the site of intramuscular administration since this results in increased blood flow to skeletal muscles. Conversely, absorption rates decrease in circulatory shocks, hypotension, congestive heart failure, myxedema, and other disturbances of the circulatory system.

Retrogasserian Glycerol Rhizolysis

It may be easier to perform glycerol rhizotomy with the patient positioned on the transport stretcher rather than the operating room table (thereby decreasing the risk of displacing the glycerol during transfer of the patient from the table to the stretcher). Before starting the procedure, as a matter of patient comfort, the patient's buttocks should be aligned with the fold in the table (as the patient will be in a sitting position for approximately 4 hours after injection).

Reproductive biology

In comparison to other catarrhine primates, where males may be more than twice the size of females, humans have only a small degree of sexual dimorphism. Depending upon the population, humans have 4-7 statural dimorphism. Statural dimorphism differences are higher in populations with tall stature, and lower in populations with small stature. Human body weight dimorphism averages about 11 . Much human sexual dimorphism involves soft-tissue characters. Subcutaneous fat patterning, seen especially in breast, thigh, and buttock fat depots, is markedly different in human males and females. Females also carry a larger percentage of subcutaneous fat than males do. Even in hunter-gather groups, where humans are very active and lean, subcutaneous body fat as measured by skinfold thickness is 5-15 in males and 20-25 in females.

History And Physical Examination

A thorough history is the most useful clinical tool to diagnose and treat hip disease. The clinician should inquire about the location, frequency, pattern, and radiation of symptoms. Clicking, locking, and other mechanical symptoms are common with labral injuries, whereas pain, stiffness, and decreased hip range of motion may suggest an inflammatory process. The clinician should establish which factors exacerbate or relieve the symptoms, and whether the complaints are of an acute or chronic nature. Intraarticular hip pain usually presents as groin discomfort and may radiate to the anterior thigh. Pain which emanates from the thigh or buttock with radiation to the knee or below can often be attributed to a neurogenic disorder 12,13 .

Table 244 Vitamin content of foods

This is an extremely rare but devastating complication of warfarin therapy. Classically it starts 4 days after initiation of therapy with pain and skin discoloration. Then frank necrosis occurs in the affected area. Most common sites are the breast and buttocks in women and the penis in men. Most reported cases have occurred in post-surgical or post-partum patients with venous thrombosis. Many (but not) all patients had protein C or protein S deficiencies when tested. The etiology of the skin necrosis is still debated but it appears that protein C or S deficiency and an inflammatory state are prerequisites for occurrence. The entity has not been described in patients anticoagulated for arterial events. A prudent approach is to overlap warfarin therapy with heparin for 24 hours whenever anticoagulating patients with venous thrombotic events. When starting warfarin for arterial events or for prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation, heparin coverage is probably not...

Gluteal PerianalPerineal Disease

Grafting is associated with high failure rates in the perineal and perianal areas and is not advised for closure of the anal canal either. Grafts in this area may contract, leading to anal stenosis 12 . Some authors argue that cases with extensive tissue resection over the buttocks and perianal region benefit from skin grafting 8, 71 , while others find that the overwhelming majority of perineal resections do well with closure by secondary intention 21 . Simple wide excision, early discharge, and home care until healing is complete minimize operative and hospitalization costs and the risk of immobilization. Complete healing requires from 2 to 5 months depending on the extent of initial disease and the surgical intervention. The patients are quite familiar with dressing techniques and therefore require little reinforcement to maintain themselves during the prolonged interval of healing. A better cosmetic result is obtained and many patients are quite concerned about the cosmetic...

Exercise For Sartorius Html

Biceps Femoris Long And Short Head

Gluteus maximus Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius (a) Muscles of the lateral right thigh. (b-d) Isolated views of the gluteal muscles. Gluteus medius (a) Muscles of the lateral right thigh. (b-d) Isolated views of the gluteal muscles. Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus

Relations To Other Factors

Are suppurations in the fold between the buttocks a form of HS An infection in the upper part of the fold between the buttocks is usually a pilonidal sinus, which is frequently associated with HS, but is different. The treatment is surgical and should be carried out by a surgeon very experienced in this type of intervention. HS lesions can be present in all of the perianal and perineal areas.

Clinical Manifestations

Lepromatous leprosy, the form with the least cell-mediated immunity, has the greatest number of bacilli and is characterized by poorly defined, widespread, symmetric erythematous macules, papules, and nodules initially. The most common sites of involvement are the face, buttocks, and lower extremities. Involvement of the face can lead to leonine facies due to diffuse infiltration with the M. leprae bacilli (Fig. 8). Later signs include infiltration of the ear lobes, saddle nose, madarosis, ichthyosis of the lower extremities, and stocking-glove peripheral neuropathy. In severe cases, ocular symptoms develop due to infiltration of facial and trigeminal nerve branches (17).

Hidradenitis Suppurativa Introduction

Some redeeming remarks are in order regarding the Philadelphia triad, Pillsbury, Shelly and Kligman, who perhaps deserve honorable mention for elaborating on Kierland's perceptive observations that hidradenitis suppurativa was more than a disease of apocrine glands but belonged to a family of related conditions 3 . They presented a unifying concept which led them to coin the term the follicular occlusion triad, relating acne conglobata, hidradenitis suppurativa and dissecting cellulitis of the scalp into one nosologic grouping. This notion has now achieved universal acceptance. Plewig and Kligman added another component, the piloni-dal sinus, comprising what is now called the fol-licular occlusion tetrad 15 . Finally, it was left to Plewig and Steger to coin the term acne inversa to acknowledge that hidradenitis suppurativa, while part of the occlusion tetrad, was a clinical entity, emphasizing its localization to the axilla, anogenital area, and the buttocks 16 . By contrast, acne...

Acl Femoral Attachment

Cruciate Ligament Attachment Femur

Gluteus medius and minimus function is lost Ability to pull pelvis down and abduction of thigh are lost Gluteus medius limp, or waddling gait Gluteus maximus function is lost Ability to rise from a seated position, climb stairs, or jump is lost 2. Paralysis of the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles occurs so that the ability to pull the pelvis down and abduction of the thigh are lost. 3. Clinically, this condition is called gluteus medius limp or waddling gait. The patient demonstrates a positive Trendelenburg sign, which is tested as follows. The patient stands with his or her back to the examiner and alternately raises each foot off the ground. If the superior gluteal nerve on the left side is injured, the right pelvis falls downward when the patient raises the right foot off the ground. Note that it is the side contralateral to the nerve injury that is affected. A Trendelenburg sign also can be observed in a patient with a hip dislocation or fracture of the neck of the...

Analytic Epidemiology

An insight into potential risk factors for HS may come from analyses of disease associations since associated diseases may share common risk factors. In principle, associations may also result from exposures which follow the development of one of the diseases of interest (e.g., iat-rogenic factors) or even represent an artifactual effect if the presence of a concomitant disease influences the diagnosis of another disease or its referral (Berkson's bias). Interestingly, in a large-scale analysis of Swedish hospital discharge diagnoses linked with data from the Swedish National Cancer Registry, a strong association was documented between HS and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), buccal cancer and liver cancer 16 . These associations may at least partly reflect chance findings derived from multiple testing. However, the primary hypothesis of the study was centered on an association between HS and NMSC. Even if NMSCs complicating perineal or buttock HS localizations is a possible...

Atypical Localizations Other Zones May Be Involved

Apocrine Glands The Buttocks

The buttocks are one of the most frequent of these atypical localizations especially in men. The clinical aspect is sometimes very peculiar the deep-seated abscesses and sinus are closely associated in a unique lesion slowly extending at the periphery over a period of years (see Fig. 3.18). The lesions may be very large, solitary and very deep. Such single macro lesions may be mistaken for regular abscesses of the muscle or even bone-derived lesions. Lesions of the buttock therefore are easily differentiated from superficial follicular inflammation. Fig. 3.18. A unique buttock lesion slowly extending peripherally over a period of years Fig. 3.18. A unique buttock lesion slowly extending peripherally over a period of years

Arteries to the Pelvis and Lower Limb

Right Lower Limb Images

Each common iliac artery descends a short distance and divides into an internal (hypogastric) branch and an external branch. The internal iliac artery gives off numerous branches to various pelvic muscles and visceral structures, as well as to the gluteal muscles and the 2. Superior and inferior gluteal arteries to the gluteal muscles, pelvic muscles, and skin of the buttocks.

Distribution of Lesions

The frequency of each localization is different in men and women 1, 4 . Axillary involvement has no gender predilection whereas genitofemoral lesions are significantly more common in women. In contrast perianal and perineal as well as buttock lesions are significantly more common in men (see Figs. 3.19, 3.20 Table 3.1). Buttocks

Trigonocephaly And Angels Kisses

The buttock, with hips in flexion. cubitus valgus Increased carrying angle at elbow. cuticle Remnant of the eponychium at the base of a fingernail. line of the spine. shawl scrotum Congenital ventral insertion of the scrotum. single palmar crease Single crease extending across palm. sitting height Distance from the top of the head to the buttocks when in sitting position.

Life Span Changes page 348

Several important nerves and blood vessels course through the muscles of the gluteal region. In order to avoid the possibility of damaging such parts, intramuscular injections are usually made into the lateral, superior portion of the gluteus medius. What landmarks would help you locate this muscle in a patient

Muscles of the Lower

Serratus Ventralis Cat With Labels

Achilles' tendon Adductor longus Adductor magnus Biceps femoris Gracilis (X2) Gastrocnemius (X2) Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Rectus femoris Sartorius Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Soleus Tensor fascia lata Tibialis anterior Vastus lateralis (X2) Vastus medialis Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus

Radiologic Evaluation And Modality Overview

Piriformis Muscle Radiology

Therapeutic injections of the hip and pelvis may provide diagnostic information and possible therapeutic relief. We routinely use CT guidance for accurate injection for sacroiliac (SI) joint pain, osteitis pubis, piriformis syndrome, iliopsoas bursitis or insertional tendonitis, and peritendinous injections of the gluteus medius minimus and hamstring insertions (Fig. 5). Based on operator preference, fluoroscopic and ultrasound guidance can be used as well.

Muscle Groups and Movement

Estambres Insertos

Some of the muscles of the appendicular musculature act on a single joint. These are called monoarticular muscles. Gluteus maximus, the major muscle group of the buttocks, is a monoarticular muscle it only acts on the hip joint. Other muscles may act at two or more joints. For example, the hamstring muscle, the semitendinosus and biceps femoris, traverses two joints and acts both on the hip and the knee. These muscles have the capacity to extend at the hip and flex at the knee. The quad muscle, rectus femoris, and the calf muscle, gastrocnemius, also act on two joints and as such are called biarticular muscles. What is the advantage of having polyarticular muscles in the human body A plausible answer to this question may be that biarticular muscle, by affecting two joints at Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus are the main muscle groups that make up the buttocks. They originate at different locations on the hip bone and insert on the femur. Gluteus maximus extends the...

The MC1R and human pigmentation and skin cancer

In 1995 we showed that sequence variation at the MC1R was common in man and that particular variants were associated with red hair and ''pale'' skin (Valverde et al., 1995). Such individuals are characterized clinically by a tendency to burn rather than tan in response to UVR, and pale skin on sites protected from the sun (such as the buttock). This clustering of phenotypic characteristics is known to be associated with an elevated risk of most forms of skin cancer (Rees, 2002c). Red hair approximates to an autosomal recessive trait although the penetrance depends on which MC1R variants are present (typically penetrance is around 0.85). This bold statement ignores some of the subtleties of phenotype hair color changes with age from childhood through early and late adulthood, and different body sites frequently have different colored hair.

Nora A Janjan John M Skibber Miguel A Rodriguez Bigas Christopher Crane Marc E Delclos Edward H Lin and Jaffer A Ajani

Dentate (pectinate) line as anal canal tumors and tumors that arise below the dentate line as cancers of the anal margin. The dentate line is a histologic transition zone between squamous and columnar epithelium and designates the location of the anal valves. The anorectal ring is the palpable muscle bundle formed by the upper portion of the internal sphincter, the deep or subcutaneous part of the external sphincter, the puborectalis muscle, and the distal longitudinal muscle from the large bowel. Perianal cancers (cancers of the anal margin) are located within a 5-cm radius around the anal verge in the buttock and the perineal region.


Unfortunately, this system does not work well for patients with thoracic kyphosis (not uncommon in elderly patients), as their limited neck extension precludes secure fixation in the table head slot. The best method to deal with this is to place one or more pillows under the patient's buttocks and

Total Body Length

Supine Length Measurement Child

Position The patient should stand upright, with the back against the wall and the head erect (Frankfort horizontal plane), facing forward, and looking straight ahead. The patient should be gently straightened upright the heels placed together buttocks and shoulders should be in contact with the wall or measuring device. The moveable headboard is lowered gently until it touches the top of the head. Appropriate clothing should be worn no socks or shoes (Fig. 4.5). Alternative A door jamb or the wall and a tape-measure can be used if a stadiometer is not available (Fig. 4.5b). The patient stands straight in the position described above, with heels together against the door jamb. Heels, buttocks, and shoulders should be in contact with the vertical door jamb.


No diagnostic paraclinical tests are currently available and a biopsy is rarely required to exclude an alternative diagnosis. Frequently, and especially in benign cases, the diagnosis has to be established primarily on patient history, i.e. more on the questioning of the patient than on objective data gathered by examination. In atypical cases - e.g. buttock involvement alone - the chronicity of the inflammatory and suppurative process is a cornerstone of the diagnosis. In 30 of patients, a positive familial history of HS is found thus helping to establish the diagnosis. This occurs especially among female patients 4 .

Adipose Tissue

Infants and young children have a continuous layer of adipose tissue just beneath the skin, which gives their bodies a rounded appearance. In adults, this subcutaneous fat thins in some regions and remains thick in others. For example, in males, adipose tissue usually thickens in the upper back, arms, lower back, and buttocks in females, it is more likely to develop in the breasts, buttocks, and thighs.

Sitting Height

Crown Rump Length

Definition Sitting height is the distance from the top of the head to the buttocks when a sitting position. Position The patients sits straight, eyes looking straight ahead (Frankfort horizontal plane). The back of the head, back, buttocks, and the shoulders are in contact with the vertical board. A moveable headboard is used to adjust the measurement (Fig. 4.15b,c). Alternatives The patient sits at the door jamb with the legs straight out in front, the back of the head, shoulders, and buttocks are in contact with the wall. A ruler or book can be used instead of a headboard. Measurements are taken with a tape from the floor to a marking on the door jamb (Fig. 4.15d).

Posterior Group

The gluteus maximus (gloo'te-us mak'si-mus) is the largest muscle in the body and covers a large part of each buttock. It connects the ilium, sacrum, and coccyx to the femur by fascia of the thigh and extends the thigh. The gluteus maximus helps to straighten the lower limb at the hip when a person walks, runs, or climbs. It is also used to raise the body from a sitting position (fig. 9.36). The gluteus medius (gloo'te-us me'de-us) is partly covered by the gluteus maximus. Its fibers extend from the ilium to the femur, and they abduct the thigh and rotate it medially (fig. 9.36). The gluteus minimus (gloo'te-us min'i-mus) lies beneath the gluteus medius and is its companion in attachments and functions (fig. 9.36). The gluteus medius and gluteus minimus help support and maintain the normal position of the pelvis. If these muscles are paralyzed as a result of injury or disease, the pelvis tends to drop to one side whenever the foot on that side is raised. Consequently, the person walks...

Pubic Scabies

This highly contagious infestation is caused by the Sarcoptes scabiei (0.2-0.4 mm in length). The infestation is transmitted by intimate contact or by contact with infested clothing. The female mite burrows into the skin, and after 1 month, severe pruritus develops. A multiform eruption may develop, characterized by papules, vesicles, pustules, urticarial wheals, and secondary infections on the hands, wrists, elbows, belt line, buttocks, genitalia, and outer feet.

Delivery of the head

The infant is grasped around the back with the left hand, and the right hand is placed, near the vagina, under the baby's buttocks, supporting the infant's body. The infant's body is rotated toward the operator and supported by the operator's forearm, freeing the right hand to suction the mouth and nose. The baby's head should be kept lower than the body to facilitate drainage of secretions.

Skin cancers

Skin pigmentation due to melanin is a highly heritable trait, and skin color was once used to determine the zygosity of twins. Twin studies of a sample of 134 Australian twins give a heritability of 0.83 for skin color measured at 685nm at the inner forearm (Clark et al., 1981). Values for more UVR-exposed sites such as the forehead are much lower and can be accounted for purely by environmental factors. This initially surprising result reflects large variation in UVR exposure and needs to be taken in context. Pigmentation is of two sorts constitutive and facultative, the former referring to colour in the absence of UVR and the latter, color in response to UVR. In practice, the upper inner forearm receives UVR (as does even the buttock, a site that is to be preferred in such studies) and it seems likely that the figure quoted of 0.83 is likely to be an underestimate. Similarly, the lower heritability quoted for sun-exposed skin needs to be interpreted in the light of high ambient...


Inspection begins from the moment the patient is sighted in the waiting room. A patient who is noted to be standing is likely to have a significant disc lesion. Considerable information can be obtained from the manner in which the patient arises from a chair, moves to the consulting room, removes the shoes and clothes, gets onto the examination couch and moves when unaware of being watched. The spine must be adequately exposed and inspected in good light. Patients should undress to their underpants women may retain their brassiere and it is proper to provide them with a gown that opens down the back. Note the general contour and symmetry of the back and legs, including the buttock folds, and look for muscle wasting. Note the lumbar lordosis and any abnormalities such as lateral deviation. If lateral deviation (scoliosis) is present it is usually away from the painful side. Note the presence of midline moles, tufts of hair or haemangioma that might indicate an underlying congenital...


Hello I am 38 years old and I have had Hidrad-enitis Suppurativa since puberty. I get these cysts on my buttocks, inside of my thighs, and the groin area. I am very discouraged with this disease, as you probably know, there is no cure. That is what the doctors have told me. I have been on every kind of medication even Accu-tane. I have had surgery on my buttocks, have had some of the glands taken out, however, the cysts will come back as they cannot take every gland out of your body. I have had them lanced, which is really humiliating, because it just hurts so bad, but afterwards it is such a relief to have the cyst and the swelling gone. I have a cyst as we speak. I believe that stress causes these, and I tend to get them around that time of the month. I really hate the way this disease has scarred me. Not only physically but emotionally. I am single, and I don't know who would want someone that has this. I'm really discouraged with this disease, I just cannot believe there is not a...


I began to develop what I initially called acne and now know to be HS quite a number of years ago, probably when I was in my late 20s (I'll be 35 tomorrow). It began as very small cysts or pimples in my groin area or on my buttocks that initially would go away in a few days. I mentioned it briefly to a few doctors and was simply told I had ingrown hairs or folliculitis or it was from wearing jeans most of the time. Over the years, the frequency, size, and duration of them increased to the point where they became so


First, just to let you know who is writing, I am a 58 year-old white male that has the disease in the groin, upper thigh and buttock areas. There is no known similar disease anywhere in the family that is known to me. I am within 10 pounds of my correct weight for height and age and have never had a weight problem. Marital status is currently single (my wife left me two years ago as a result of my various restrictions associated with the disease - not liking to be around sick people). So much for the in sickness and in health bit. Over the years, I have been treated primarily with antibiotics (the whole gamut changing frequently) with little or no success. In November 1995 and February 1996, I underwent surgery to 27 excise portions of my upper thighs and buttocks. Healing did not go well with about 20 inches of incisions taking the best part of a year to close and heal. These operations did nothing to slow down the spread of the disease.

Methods of Closure

The principle reason for skin grafting is to prevent contracture and shorten the period of morbidity. Split-skin grafting, either immediate or delayed, has the advantage of rapid healing with complete wound healing, often in 2-3 weeks. Excision and free skin grafting is most satisfactory for shallow axillary, suprapubic, and buttock defects. For the perineum, pubis, and intercrural regions, split thickness grafts yield shortest healing times and satisfactory cosmetic results 8 . Disadvantages include an unsightly cosmetic result and the discomfort and poor cosmesis associated with the donor site 12 . In addition, the affected limb must be immobilized for several days. These can be applied immediately at the time of excision. Otherwise, a delay of 4-6 days will allow for a healthy bed of granulation tissue to form which does not bleed if the dressings are soaked off and split grafts can be applied at that time. Mustafa et al. 46 reported a preference for a 1-week delay before skin...

Acne Conglobata

Acne conglobata (AC) is a disease attributed to an occlusion of sebaceous glands by a process of keratinization. This occlusion can be responsible for secondary sebaceous inflammation. Clinically, the patient presents with comedones, cysts, abscesses and draining sinus tracts, mainly located on the trunk and buttocks, but the face, neck and extremities may also be involved. In the literature, several cases of so-called AC may very well in fact be HS, such as in Whipp's two familial cases of fatal squamous cell carcinoma, in which a 56-year-old woman had suffered from widespread abscesses predominantly affecting the buttocks, AXILLAE and back 3 . The question of an association between AC and HS arises. In contrast to HS, AC is predominant in men 2 . It is however also highly inflammatory, starting in early adult life with an important tendency to scarring, which in AC is sometimes keloidal. Oral isotretinoin represents a major therapeutic improvement in the treatment of this once...

Other Lesions

Hidradenitis Supurativa Axilar

A number of other lesions may be seen in patients with HS. Some of these lesions are clearly follicular and may therefore obscure HS lesions and cause a delay in the diagnosis. Common small follicular papules and pustules are frequent in area in both early and late HS (see Fig. 3.11) and may occur isolated in a region not involved by HS 1, 2 . The general prevalence of minor pustular follicular lesions of the skin in not known, but such transient lesions are estimated to be very common. In HS patients such lesions are not uncommon on the buttocks, but they do not constitute a diagnostic clue for HS (see Fig. 3.12). Other common findings are the circular depressed superficial scars also sometimes observed on the buttocks of patients. These are most likely secondary to the unspe-cific elements, and are not a clue for the diagnosis of HS. Fig. 3.12. Buttock folliculitis in a patient with axillary typical lesions of HS Fig. 3.12. Buttock folliculitis in a patient with axillary typical...

Lumbosacral Plexuses

The lumbosacral (lumbo-sa'kral) plexuses are formed by the last thoracic nerve and the lumbar, sacral, and coc-cygeal nerves. These networks of nerve fibers extend from the lumbar region of the back into the pelvic cavity, giving rise to a number of motor and sensory fibers associated with the lower abdominal wall, external genitalia, buttocks, thighs, legs, and feet. The major branches of these plexuses include the following (fig. 11.35) 3. The sciatic nerves are the largest and longest nerves in the body. They pass downward into the buttocks and descend into the thighs, where they divide into tibial and common peroneal nerves. The many branches of these nerves supply muscles and skin in the thighs, legs, and feet. 2. The inferior and superior gluteal nerves supply the gluteal muscles and the tensor fasciae latae muscle.

Relative Positions

Anatomical Terms For Body Parts

In humans the anterior structures are those at the front of the body such as the face and abdomen. The posterior features are those at the rear of the body, for example, the back and buttocks. The terms ventral and dorsal are sometimes used in place of anterior and posterior. Ventral is normally used of four-legged animals to refer to structures underneath, i.e. the belly. The word dorsal refers to the back.

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