Tom

Pineal Red Red Green

Human

Green Rods

Rods | Human

Blue UV

Blue | Human UV

Green Rhod. 1 Blue UV

Rhod. 2

Vertebrates

Invertebrates

Figure 14-3. Opsin genes. (A) Simplified opsin gene tree; in many instances similar but not identical opsins (based on gene sequence and estimated peak sensitivity) are found within the groups tested, but shown here as one branch of similar genes; (B) location of the amino acids in the opsin protein structure that have the greatest effect in red-green spectral cone sensitivity among naturally observed opsins, showing their likely important relationship to the retinal molecule bound to the photoreceptor (e.g., Yokoyama 2000; Yokoyama and Yokoyama 2000); (C) distribution of wavelengths to which opsins respond (rhodopsins have peak sensitivities around the 500 nm range).

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