Friendship Ebook

Making and Keeping Friends

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Effects of Friendships

By providing emotional and material support, entertainment, information, and serving as a sounding board for our ideas and feelings, friends make us feel good and increase our level of satisfaction with the world and our place in it. In fact, the extent to which people are satisfied with their lives in general can be predicted more accurately from friendships than from family relationships (Aizenberg & Treas, 1985). Complete honesty and self-disclosure between parents and children are often discouraged by the duties and obligations of the parent child bond, whereas intimacy is crucial to the survival of close friendships. Furthermore, we choose our own friends, but we have no voice in the selection of our relatives. In times of personal crises precipitated by the loss of a loved one, health problems, or other sources of emotional stress, friends can help cushion the shock and assist us in coping and rehabilitating ourselves. In contrast, a lack of friendships and other positive social...

Stages and Types of Friendships

Unlike love at first sight, friendships tend to develop gradually over time. Newman (1982) describes the growth of friendships as occurring in three stages. The first stage is characterized by the mutual awareness of two persons. In most cases, social interaction goes no further than this. If it does, then a second stage, in which surface contact is made, ensues. The behavior of the two parties at this stage is governed by social norms, and little self-disclosure takes place. With the beginning of self-disclosure, the relationship moves into a third and final stage, mutuality, marking the transition to bona fide friendship. Then, sincerity, emotional support, and other behaviors and feelings that are associated with close friendships begin to emerge. Newman's three-stage theory is a description of the development of deep friendships, which go beyond the more superficial interest-related friendships based on similarity of lifestyles or interests (Keith, Hill, Goudy, & Powers, 1984)....

Age Differences in Friendships

As a group, young adults have more friends and acquaintances than middle-aged and older adults (Antonucci, 1985). Newly married young adults have more friends than adolescents, middle-aged adults, or older adults. They often make friends with other married couples and form two-couple relationships. By the time they are middle-aged, most adults have some old friends whom they may or may not see often. Once friendships have been established, they can be maintained even if the friends see each other infrequently. It may be enough simply to know that someone out there cares about you even if you rarely see him or her (Hess, 1971). To the extent that older adults have fewer friends than other age groups, it is probably due in large measure to the fact that older adults, who typically do not attend school or work outside the home, encounter fewer people every day than in earlier years. In addition, most older adults have voluntarily disengaged to some extent from social life and have...

Other Factors in Friendship

With respect to the number of friends that one has, people of higher socioeconomic status tend to have more friends than those of lower status. On the whole, the latter are more kin-oriented than friend-oriented and hence have much closer relationships with their relatives than with nonrelatives. Ethnicity is also associated with the number of friends, with whites having more contact with friends and neighbors than blacks or Hispanics (Dowd & Bengtson, 1978). Ethnicity is, of course, related to socioeconomic status, so these two variables are not independent in their relationships to friendship. Marital status is also related to the number and nature of friendships. Young, married adults typically have a greater number of friends and see them more often than single or widowed adults (Aizenberg & Treas, 1985). The situation is different among retired older adults. Unmarried retirees spend twice as much time as married retirees with friends (Larson et al., 1986). Older widows and...

Contacts and Friendships

It is generally maintained that frequent contacts between people are necessary in order to develop friendships, but social contacts do not necessarily have to be person-to-person or in the flesh. Many people have pen pals, faraway friends, or long-distance lovers whom they have never met in person but for whom they nevertheless have strong positive feelings. In addition, once they are established, friendships can be maintained even though the parties rarely see each other. Rather than requiring frequent, close contact in order to survive, perhaps the perception of continuing friendship is enough to keep a person happy and satisfied (Tesch, Whitbourne, & Nehrke, 1981). Like almost everything else studied by social scientists, the need for social contact varies with the individual. Certainly, most people who have been socially isolated for much of their lives do not report being unusually dissatisfied with their lot. By expecting less in the form of social interaction, they apparently...

Sex Differences in Friendships

Not only do women of all ages have more friends than men, but the nature and functions of those friendships are different. Women are more likely to initiate social interactions both within and outside the family and to develop deeper and longer-lasting friendships than men (Dickens & Perlman, 1981 Wright, 1989). Compared with men, women are more socially interdependent and more likely to engage in self-disclosure (Gilligan, 1982). Their friendships are characterized by the sharing of feelings and concerns and the giving and receiving of emotional support and suggestions (Fox, Gibbs, & Auerbach, 1985 Reisman, 1981). They talk more often and more openly and intimately to their friends, using conversation to make connections and share experiences, and not just to provide information (Berndt, 1992 Dindia & Allen, 1992). The bonds and feelings of support stemming from the friendships of both married and unmarried women, in particular, help them to cope with loneliness, isolation, and...


As with love, friendship is most apt to flourish when beliefs, values, and personalities are similar. Beliefs and values are, of course, related to age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, proximity, abilities, and interests. With respect to proximity, friendships are more apt to develop between people who live and work in the same area and among those who spend a great deal of time together. Physical appearance is also a factor in friendships. Though we may appreciate and even desire beautiful people, we tend not to pursue them but rather to choose as friends those who are similar to us in physical appearance, so our advances are less likely to be rebuffed (Cash & Derlega, 1978 Murstein & Christy, 1976). With respect to the give and take involved in friendship, equitability is important in that both parties must feel that the costs and rewards of the friendship are approximately equal. Perhaps even more critical for enduring friendships are feelings of mutual trust. Trust that a...

How Older Adults Contribute To The Health Of Their Communities

While many young adults leave the city, healthy affluent retired adults often return in order to take advantage of cultural attractions (Mulrine, 1999). For example, the Upper West Side of Manhattan and Friendship Heights in Washington DC have large populations of older adults. These vigorous and affluent retirees bring resources into the city through property taxes, discretionary spending, and charitable contributions including support of cultural activities.

Roots in Natural Theology

Mutualisms were frequently used by ancient writers as examples of nature's balance those tendencies that prevented any species from becoming either too abundant or extinct were due to divine providence. Herodotus told the story about a mutually beneficial relationship between Nile crocodiles and a species of plover. The plover ate leeches from the crocodiles' mouth, and the crocodile never hurts the bird.30 Aristotle liked that story and mentioned it in three different books. He also reported that a mutual relationship existed between certain mussels (Pinna) and little crabs (Pinnotheres).31 Similar descriptions were given by Cicero and Aelian, who drew the moral that humans should learn friendship from nature.32 Pliny also remarked that friendships occur between peacocks and pigeons, turtledoves and parrots, blackbirds and turtle-doves, the crow and the little heron in a joint enmity against the fox kind, and the goshawk and kite against the buzzard. 33 Mutual interactions were...

Cultural Assessment

Unfortunately, the measurement of acculturation has been extensively contested in the fields of ethnic and cross-cultural psychology, and there is no one standard way to assess acculturation of an Asian American individual. Most researchers agree that acculturation is a multifaceted process that occurs when individuals from two or more cultures have continuous first-hand contact, resulting in changes in the original cultural patterns. However, a number of concerns have been raised regarding the conceptualization and psychometric properties of various written measures to measures this construct among Asian Americans (Nagata, 1994 Ponterotto, Baluch, & Carielli, 1998). For Asian Americans, a myriad of ethnic-specific acculturation and identity measures have been devised for various Asian American ethnic groups (Dana, 1993 Paniagua, 1994), but most such measures have yet to be subjected to wide use or extensive psychometric validation. The most widely accepted scale in Asian American...

Toward Ethical Guidelines Of Terminal Care

The dying person should have the opportunity to clarify relationships, to continue and develop normal friendships, and to know the truth. A terminally ill patient should be cared for both as an individual and as a social being. The importance of family, friends, and the atmosphere of community, whether a dying person remains at home or is admitted for inpatient care, cannot be overemphasized. Social interchange is just as much an ordinary function of life with the dying person as with the healthy. Physicians and nursing staff cannot afford to be impersonal. Loneliness and isolation due to or perpetuated by a particular care system are inexcusable. Together with adequate physical care, the dying person who has sufficient human companionship will be relieved of much anguish.

Aggression in peer groups

Negative peer interactions also occur more frequently following friendships or romantic relationships that have gone sour. The level of harassment that many of these children often young women experience is great enough for parents to become involved. In some cases, it may be necessary to move the child to another school district. A potential remediation for these negative interactions includes more active teacher involvement when negative social interactions are observed.

What Do Children And Young People Need

And all this needs to be in the context of feeling safe, aware of boundaries, and that if told 'no' this is usually adhered to and cannot be manipulated. Children will then slowly develop a sense of identity, a racial identity, a sexual identity, all of which they can be proud of and then develop friendships which grow into intimate satisfying relationships. If the children are reasonably attractive physically and do well in one area academically, sport, the arts such as drama or music and make friends, then they are likely to move into adulthood satisfactorily even if the adolescent turmoil is fairly stormy. The children who struggle, who opt out, who develop mental or physical

Siblings And Other Relatives

Some of the most negative, as well as the most positive, feelings are directed toward siblings. Even as mature adults, some siblings have not gotten over the interpersonal rivalry that occurred in their childhood (Greer, 1992). In most cases these feelings become less intense with age, but even in later life siblings may have strong hostile feelings toward each other. Actually, feelings and relationships with one's siblings in later life run the gamut from highly positive to highly negative. Thus, Gold (1989,1990) was able to classify sibling relationships in older adulthood into five categories intimate, congenial, loyal, apathetic, and hostile. Intimate siblings were extremely close they were best friends and confidants and totally accepted each other. Another group, congenial siblings, were also close but did not share the same degree of empathy as intimate siblings. Relationships between loyal siblings were based on family ties or belongingness rather than affection or...

Terminating The Experience

In a follow-up study of families in shelters who moved into apartments (Rivlin & Johnson, 1990), we found that some of the women looked forward to the regular visits. It was very difficult to end the research, and some participants continued to call us well after termination of the work. This was a powerful lesson on how a research experience can impact the different persons involved. It raised ethical issues of friendship and equity that influenced later studies that we undertook.

Body Proportions At Different Ages

Development Fetus Month Month

Teens and young adults with fetal alcohol syndrome are short and have small heads. Many individuals remain at early grade-school level. They often lack social and communication skills, such as understanding the consequences of actions, forming friendships, taking initiative, and interpreting social cues.

Emotion Assessed Through Behavior

One behavioral manifestation of emotion concerns the action tendencies that become more or less likely during emotion. Tasks that inquire about various actions or intentions may be linked to emotion states. One task is to ask participants how much they would like to engage in various behaviors, such as talk with a good friend, engage in some exercise, or have a pleasant meal. Teasdale and colleagues (Teasdale, Taylor, & Fogarty, 1980) reported that this task is sensitive to depressed mood or sadness, which has the action tendency of social withdrawal. When sad, people often lose interest in activities that formerly gave them pleasure. Sadness is also thought to be associated with depressed psychomotor function. Writing speed, for example, is negatively correlated with sadness and depression (see Velten, 1968, who used this task as one criterion measure in the validation study of the mood induction that bears his name). Other psychomotor tasks that have been...

Demography Of Lgbt People

Explanations as to why LGB people are drawn to cities vary widely. Some scholars root the urban nature of the LGB community in historical events, such as the discharge of gay soldiers in San Francisco following World War II (D'Emilio, 1989). Others have suggested that LGB people are drawn to areas with more favorable social and political climates. Indeed, disentangling cause from effect is difficult, yet 9 of the 12 states without a law prohibiting same-sex marriage and 11 of the 14 states that prohibit employment discrimination based on sexual orientation are also among the 20 states with the highest proportion of same-sex couples (Gates and Ost, 2004). Others have suggested that economic, not political, forces draw LGB people to cities, claiming that because same-sex couples tend to live in smaller housing units, they are able to afford housing in high amenity areas like cities (Black, et al., 2002). More commonly, scholars have suggested that large concentrations of LGB people...

Shrinking Of The World

Not only do the elderly suffer from the presence of death, but they are also plagued by distance. They themselves may have moved a number of times during their lifetimes and not have developed lasting friendships. Relatives, due to the mobility of society, may be scattered across the globe. Despite the advertisements of telephone companies, long-distance calling is not an effective substitute. Relationships are maintained only through persistent and ongoing contact, and distance attenuates many once-close relationships.

Community Organizing In Urban Neighborhoods

Although building social networks and social capital to solve community problems has merit on its own, it can also indirectly promote public health social support and friendship ties reduce mortality and morbidity (House, et al., 1988 Semenza, et al., 1996, Semenza, et al., 1999) lack of trust between neighborhood residents is associated with increased risk of death from cardiovascular diseases (Kawachi, et al., 1997) and in U.S. states with lower levels of social capital, self-reported health is poorer, controlling for individual risk factors (Lochner, et al., 1999 Kawachi, et al., 1999). Social capital has also been related to mental health in adolescents (Aneshensel and Sucoff, 1996), adolescent birth rates (Denner, et al., 2001), and firearm deaths (Kennedy, et al., 1998).

Other Informants Child and Infant Temperament

It has been widely shown in the literature that as children grow older, peers increase in importance therefore, peers' reports may be used to measure friendship status as it relates to constructs such as emotion regulation and social competence. Socio-metrics are the procedures used to measure peer relationships through a system of rating popularity. These procedures may be used with children as young as preschool through the use of pictures (e.g., a smile, frown, and neutral face Asher, Singleton, Tinsley, & Hymel, 1979), or with older children using questionnaires to rank classmates and to

Thematic Content Analysis

Recently, Winter (1994) integrated the different existing scoring systems into a unified manual that allows the simultaneous coding of achievement, power, and affiliation intimacy imagery. According to this system, themes including improvement concerns such as she wanted to find a better solution are considered achievement imagery, whereas attempts to influence others (e.g., he tried to convince him of the importance of this project ) or references to status (e.g., he impressed his friends with his new sports car ) are interpreted as expressions of a need for power. Affiliation and intimacy themes are merged into one category and include both statements about friendships ( the two college friends were glad to see each other again ) and intimate relationships ( they were young and in love ). A motive score is calculated by adding imagery scores across all stories and correcting for verbal productivity. More than 50 years after its development, TAT-based need assessment has recently...

Services Funded By the OAA

Nutrition services, which include more than a meal. Since its creation, the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program has provided nearly 6 billion meals for at-risk older persons. Each day in communities across America, senior citizens come together in senior centers or other group settings to share a meal, as well as comradery and friendship. Nutrition services also provide nutrition education, health screenings, and counseling at senior centers. Homebound seniors are able to remain in their homes largely because of the daily delivery of a hot meal, sometimes by a senior volunteer who is their only visitor. March 2002, marked the 30th anniversary of the OAA Nutrition Program, and AoA will be celebrating this successful community-based service throughout the year.

Personality Is a Multilevel Phenomenon

A key component of our neosocioanalytic perspective on personality is that the domains of traits, motives, abilities, and narratives can be differentiated in hierarchical terms (see Hooker, 2002 Hooker & McAdams, 2003 Mayer, 1995 Roberts & Pomerantz, in press). For example, at the broadest level of the trait domain one finds the personality traits found in standard omnibus personality inventories. These are often the traits that make up the now ubiquitous measures of the Big Five. The midlevel of the continuum can be conceptualized by narrow traits, such as the subfacets of the Big Five (Roberts, Bogg, Walton, Chernyshenko, & Stark, 2004). These constructs are broader than discrete behaviors but less broad than traits, as they are often constrained to specific roles and interpersonal contexts (e.g., relationships, work, and friendships). Presumably, these midlevel constructs are more stable than discrete behaviors and less stable than broad traits (e.g., Conley, 1984). At the most...

Intraurban Spatial Distribution Segregation Of Social Groups

Theories of ethnic assimilation to yield a model of spatial assimilation. Minority groups initially are dissimilar in culture and social status and locate in the poorer areas of the central city. As they acculturate and assimilate on socioeconomic characteristics, they are better able to secure housing in higher-status areas, both because they have the means to do so and because they are more accepted based on lower social distance. Eventually, they gain acceptance into such primary relationships as coresidence, friendship, and marriage with the majority population and are fully spatially assimilated.

Complex Syndrome Treatment Goals

To paraphrase Kiesler (1997), the essential problems of individuals reside in the person's recurrent transactions with significant others. These stem largely from disordered, inappropriate, or inadequate communications, and result from failing to attend and or not correct the unsuccessful and self-defeating nature of these communications. The interpersonal approach centers its attention on the individual's closest relationships, notably current family interactions, the family of origin, past and present love affairs and friendships, as well as neighborhood and work relations. It is the patient's habitual interactive and hierarchical roles in these social systems that are the focus of interpersonal therapy. The dyadic treatment interaction, despite its uniqueness, is seen as paralleling other venues of human communication. The interpersonal therapist becomes sensitized to the intrusions of the patient's habitual styles of interaction by the manner in which he draws out or pulls the...

Identity and Interpersonal Behavior

Interpersonal difficulty is primarily determined by the nature of intrapersonal development in relation to ego strength and identity. The idea is that the subject's intrapersonal conflicts and deficiencies lead to corresponding interpersonal problems. In the report, this connection has to be clearly maintained. Previously, implications may have been drawn about the potential for interpersonal difficulties in terms of discussions of frustration tolerance, impulse control, maturational level, and overall reality testing. In this section of the report, the psychologist considers these prior implications about interpersonal behavior those that can be confirmed need to be elaborated, and those that need revision are further explored. For example, based on characteristic defensive operations, anxiety, and the nature of the ego, interpersonal behavior may now be more readily understood and explainable. Interpersonal behavior usually refers to how well one manages any personal relationship,...

Future Needs And Resources Of Family Caregivers

In addition to family forms based on traditional definitions of family, the number of new and diverse family structures such as cohabitation by unmarried heterosexual and homosexual couples and communal living has increased. Little is known about the ability or willingness of these types of families to provide care that may require creating ''surrogate families'' to replace the traditional family support systems. For example, gays and lesbians who have experienced the loss of family support earlier in life are less likely to rely on family members to assist them in old age. Consequently, they develop strong friendship networks to replace family supports (Friend, 1991 Quam & Whitford, 1992).

Clinical Case Example

In subsequent sessions, her therapist followed up by checking to see if Georgia had indeed tried politely turning down invitations and how her friends had responded. Over the course of a few weeks, she discovered that she could exercise control over her schedule and her life without alienating her friends. This left her more comfortable with developing friendships.

Social and Economic Differences

The greater social sensitivity and empathy of females continues throughout their lifetimes, from childhood through old age. Placing more value on friendships and helping relationships in general, women develop more extensive social networks through which they give and receive assistance of a material and socio emotional nature. As discussed in Chapter 7, middle-aged and older adult women are more likely than men to maintain contact with The social interests of women are not limited to family members and friendships but extend to the wider community and larger geographical units. Career-oriented women are more likely to enter helping professions such as child care, teaching, nursing, and social work than other fields (Eagly & Crowley, 1986). On a nonprofessional level, women are more likely than men to be called upon as caregivers. Many participate in community service, religious, and volunteer activities of various kinds. In the political sphere, their greater concern with the...

Persons Who Request Autopsy Permission

Friends or any person of legal age who assumes responsibility for the burial. The institution or person obtaining permission may ask for an affidavit stating the facts of the friendship or other relation, and stating that the person in question will assume the costs of the burial.

How Cities Affect Lgbt Health

Urban social networks may provide support with potentially significant health benefits (Kimmel, et al, 1998 Latkin, et al., 2003 McCarthy, 2000). Given the rejection and stigma that many LGBT people face, their social networks may be particularly important sources of affirmation and support (Valentine and Skelton, 2003). Many, though certainly not all, LGBT people are estranged from their biological families, and some research suggests that GL couples perceive they have more support from their friends than from their family members (Turner, et al., 1993). In one study of young people entering an urban LGB social scene, participants described forming social connections that acted as substitutes for family relationships (Valentine and Skelton, 2003). The importance of peer networks became especially clear when friendship networks and voluntary organizations provided daily care to thousands of men living with and dying from AIDS. The social networks of gay men have also been used to...

Specific language impairment SLI

The principal clinical diagnostic instruments for autism are the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), an interactive interview for observing social and communicative behaviour, and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), an interview for caregivers of individuals with autism. Traits examined include frequency of eye contact quality of imaginative play ability to form friendships and rigidity in routines. Assessment for autism also generally includes standardised measures of both performance and verbal IQ. These instruments are able


While programs specifically aimed at preventing MDD are not widespread, early interventions with children to address some of the issues related to depression have met with success. In particular, social skills training has been found to reduce symptoms of depression, perhaps by enabling children to develop the kinds of social supports and friendships that promote good mental health. Cognitive behavioral techniques that teach people to challenge dysfunctional thought patterns, such as the tendency to deny responsibility for good outcomes and to feel overly responsible for negative events, has been found to successfully reduce the rates of depressive symptoms in children and college students. In addition, psychoeducational work with parents having mood disorders has been effective in improving the adjustment of their children. Long-term follow-up of such approaches is incomplete, but these studies support the possibility that improved individual and family functioning may help to lower...


Jacobson was a civil servant, behavior analyst, scholar, editor, teacher, professional, futurist, and advocate for science and rational services for people with disabilities. His many contacts included leaders in government, professional psychology, and academe. He was generous with his time, frequently helping researchers to improve their research designs and parents to find and access high quality services for their children with developmental disabilities. He helped when he was asked, whether or not he knew previously the person requesting his assistance. He was genuinely friendly whenever friendship was offered to him. So many people sought his guidance in so many fields related to developmental disabilities, psychology, and applied research that his absence is sorely felt on at least three continents by scientists, professionals, and consumers of disability services alike. He was an internationalist and organizer, and consequently he earned recognition and leadership positions in...

Varieties of Love

Eros the desire to form a psychological union with or feel as one with a love partner. Philia the feeling ofcompanionship or friendship that a person has with a loved one, even in the More research-based than the conceptions of Maslow and May is Robert Sternberg's (1986) three-factor theory of love. As illustrated in Figure 6-2, the theory describes love in terms of three dimensions passion (intense physiological desire for someone), intimacy (sharing thoughts and emotions with someone), and decision commitment (willingness to remain with someone). The various combinations of these three components yield different types of love infatuated love, romantic love, fatuous love, empty love, companionate love, and consummate love (see Figure 6-2). Infatuation, or love at first sight, is based on strong physical attraction. Romantic love is an intimate, passionate relationship without commitment. Fatuous love, in which the partners are swept off their feet but do not develop intimacy, leads...


Exhibitionism is a mental disorder characterized by a compulsion to display one's genitals to an unsuspecting stranger. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, also known as the DSM-IV-TR, classifies exhibitionism under the heading of the paraphilias, a subcategory of sexual and gender identity disorders. The paraphilias are a group of mental disorders marked by obsession with unusual sexual practices or with sexual activity involving nonconsenting or inappropriate partners (such as children or animals). The term paraphilia is derived from two Greek words meaning outside of and friendship-love.

Schizoid Personality

The traditional view of schizoid personality concerns the person's characteristic style of aloofness, coldness, and remoteness. Complaints frequently are made of such persons that they are unable to express or perhaps even feel warm emotions toward others. Schizoid persons rarely develop close friendships. They can experience hurt feelings but seem indifferent to praise or criticism expressed by others. An absence of interpersonal contact also indicates the trait of withdrawal. Because withdrawal and remoteness are central in the personality structure of the schizoid character, such a person's ability to establish close and enduring relationships is effectively minimized. Correspondingly, fantasy life becomes compelling for the person and gratifications are accomplished largely through this self-contained activity. The fantasies of such persons frequently have a hostile quality that rarely is expressed directly in behavior. In many cases, work performance is not unduly affected and...

Loneliness and Money

Widows and widowers are, on the whole, lonelier than married people, but their loneliness does not necessarily come from living alone. Loneliness is more of a problem for younger than for older widows and for working-class than for middle-class widows (Atchley, 1975). Loneliness also tends to be higher for widows residing in metropolitan areas than for those in medium-sized cities and small towns (Atchley, 1975 Kunkel, 1979 Lopata, 1973). The relationship of loneliness to age, social class, and location differences in loneliness depends on the number of social contacts the person has. Older widows tend to have more friends than younger widows, and middle-class widows have more time and a greater tendency than working-class widows to establish new friendships. A number of factors could account for the greater loneliness of widows who live in metropolitan areas, but the principal one is that the psychological climate, traveling distances, and safety conditions in large metropolitan...


We will illustrate the five models by applying them to data from an MTMM study exploring the relations between self- and peer-rated frequency of negative emotions. The traits were ear, anger, and sadness. The three methods were self-ratings, ratings by a good friend, and ratings by an acquaintance. The sample consisted of 172 triples of self- and peer raters. This sample was a subgroup of individuals

Support groups

Socialization, interpersonal relationships, and social support that can be gained through the group may not be available elsewhere, and as such, it can be a very positive experience for the participant. In a group situation, a participant can learn how to express feelings in a healthy and positive way, practice assertive communication, receive feedback about appropriate and inappropriate content for conversation, receive feedback about nonverbal communication, learn new ways to ask for help from others, be able to help others, learn how to form friendships, and learn new coping skills and behaviors.

Causes of stress

Social changes that have increased the stress level of modern life include increased population mobility and the sprawling size of modern cities. It is not unusual for adults to live hundreds of miles away from parents and siblings and it is hard to make and keep friendships when people move every few years. In most large cities, many people live in apartment buildings where they do not know their neighbors. Social isolation and loneliness can produce chronic stress. A study done in Norway between 1987 and 1993 found that social support networks made a significant difference in lowering the impact of both acute and chronic stress on mental health. Social scientists have observed that the increased isolation of married couples from extended families and friendship networks increases strains on the marriage. The rising divorce rate in the United States has been attributed in part to the loss of social supports that once helped to keep married couples together. The experience of divorce...

Why protect privacy

Love and friendship involve the initial respect for the rights of others which morality requires of everyone. They further involve the voluntary and spontaneous relinquishment of something between friend and friend, lover and lover. The title to information about oneself conferred by privacy provides the necessary something. To be friends or lovers persons must be intimate to some degree with each other. Intimacy is the sharing of information about one's actions, beliefs, or emotions which one does not share with all, and which one has the right not to share with anyone.29

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