101 Toxic Food Ingredients
Curries, stews, pickled vegetables, and other ethnic side dishes that are hot, sour, sweet, or crunchy provide variety and enhance the flavor and texture of the main entree. Likewise, condiments are essential in many ethnic meals. Every ethnic group has its typical condiments to achieve each individual's desired taste. The Chinese have their sweet and sour sauces or plum sauces, Mexicans have salsas, Japanese have teriyakis, Tunisians have harrissa, French have rouille, Indians have pickles or chutneys, Indonesians have sambals, and Koreans have kimchis. As with side dishes, when condiments are eaten with a meal, totally new sensations are produced. In many Asian cuisines, the concept of a main entr e and side dishes blend together in the form of a one pot or one dish meal such as stews, soups, sauced or souped noodles, or fried rice, all of which are also served with condiments. Bowl meals provide varying tastes and textures simultaneously.
Plant product used primarily for seasoning purposes and includes tropical aromatics more commonly referred to in trade as spices (pepper, cinnamon, cloves, etc.), herbs (e.g., basil, oregano, mint), spice seeds (poppy, sesame, mustard), and dehydrated vegetables (onions, garlic, etc.). Webster's New World Dictionary defines spice as a vegetable condiment, or relish, in form of powder or condiments. These definitions are outdated, limited, and incorrect in today's more knowledgeable and sophisticated society. Chile peppers, star anise, nutmeg, and mace, which are fruits or parts of fruits used for flavoring, should not be defined as vegetable products. Dehydrated onions, garlic, chives, and shallots are primarily used for flavor enhancement and should be included in the spice definition. While a spice may serve the purpose of condimenting a meal, it is not a condiment. Condiments include prepared sauces, dressings, dips, relishes, and spreads. In bygone days, leaves and seeds of...
The prebiotics most commonly used as functional food ingredients are non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs), of which a variety of types are commercially available (32). Most of these NDOs are natural components of many common foods including honey, milk, and various fruits and vegetables (32-34). Commercially, they are produced as food ingredients by four main processes
Toxicology is the discipline used to predict undesirable biological or adverse effects in the living organisms as a consequence of exposure to, for instance, chemicals in our environment, both man-made as well as naturally occurring. A practical definition of an adverse change is the following any treatment-related alteration from baseline that diminishes an organism's ability to survive, reproduce, or adapt to the environment.39 The discipline forms part of the administration of chemicals in our society, such as medicines, food additives, pesticides, and industrial and
How Prepared and Consumed Greeks and Romans used peppermint in condiments, cordials, and fruits. Europeans use it in sweet products such as desserts, candy, jams, jellies, chocolates, cordials, liqueurs, and cigarettes. In Europe, the crystallized leaves are also used as decorations in cakes and pastries. Today in the United States, peppermint is mainly used in bakery products, teas, and confectionery. How Prepared and Consumed native to Southeast Asia, Vietnamese mint is commonly used in Vietnam, Singapore, Cambodia, and Malaysia. The Nonyas of Singapore and Malaysia add chopped fresh mint with fermented shrimp paste, turmeric, galangal, and lemongrass to lend a unique flavor to their spicy soups, curries, laksas (or spicy noodle broths), and condiments. It is an important flavoring in Vietnam, where whole fresh leafy spices are a significant part of preparing or garnishing a meal or dish. Vietnamese mint leaves are sometimes used to wrap beef, seafood, or vegetables that are cooked...
Kaempferia galangal is used in liqueurs, bitters, and beers of Russia and Scandinavia. It is popular in Thailand, where it is grated for use in meat curry pastes, soups, and fish curries with chile peppers, kaffir lime leaf, and coconut. It is also used in Indonesia and in pungent Malay-style curries, sambals, and condiments.
Turmeric, from the ginger family, is often called Indian saffron. Its root is dried and ground to give a yellow color with an orange tinge. It is used as a natural food coloring in salad dressings, pickles, mustards, soups, and condiments. Its coloring is due to curcumin, a diketone, that accounts for 3 to 7 of this spice. The curcumin content varies depending upon its source, with Allepey (India) turmeric having a higher amount of curcumin than other varieties.
The Dravidians were the predominant civilization of South India. They used tamarind, black pepper, lemon, cardamom, cinnamon, clove, turmeric, and pomegranate to flavor their foods. Pepper plants, cardamom, and cinnamon grew wild in the south of India, particularly in the states of Kerala and Karnataka. Mysore, in Karnataka, was popular for its cardamom, and Kerala was known for its black pepper. While cinnamon also grew wild in South India, the best cinnamon came from Sri Lanka, off the coast of South India. In addition to flavoring foods, spices played a significant role in the religious and cultural lives of early Indian people. The colors yellow and orange were considered auspicious and festive because of their connection to the sun. Consequently, saffron and turmeric were used in religious ceremonies and in the important personal occasions in everyday life, such as childbirths, marriages, and funerals.
More upscale and innovative dishes with authentic cooking of Canton, Peking, Shanghai, and Szechwan are emerging from the standard Chinese American takeout fare. Noodles, bowl meals, and stir-fries will continue to appeal to many, but with more intense and exciting flavors. Lighter, subtle Cantonese style sauces are supplanting heavy, starchy types. More innovative bowl meals and dim sum dishes will appear at American restaurants. Many foods that taste and look like chicken, pork, or shrimp in Chinese vegetarian cooking will emerge, using mushrooms, tofu, and a variety of vegetables. Braised five-spice lentils, oven-roasted gingered potatoes, sesame-scented bean curd, and pan caramelized Chinese cabbage are appearing in upscale menus. Simplicity, freshness, taste, and presentation are paramount to Japanese cooking, which will continue to appeal to the adventurous young and mainstream. More authentic flavorings such as horseradish and wasabi condiments, soba and rice bowls, vegetarian...
Fusion sauces can be used as condiments to perk up traditional grilled, steamed, or baked foods that are prepared with moderate seasonings. Alternatively, mainstream sauces, such as tartar sauce, steak sauce, or ketchup, can be made into a new sauce with ethnic spices and flavorings such as wasabi, chipotle, or pomegranate.
As a footnote to the labelling debate, it is surprising that the industry, once it became clear that there would be a labelling legislation, did not insist on labelling of all food products that came into contact with GMOs. In that scenario, so many products would have had to be labelled, that within a short time, the public would have become acclimatised to GMOs. Even in the present situation, a justified concern of NGOs opposing GMOs is that consumers are unlikely to read food labels. This explains the continuing pressure of some NGOs on supermarket chains not to allow GM products into their stores, and why some food biotechnology companies in Europe are currently concentrating their publicity efforts in the same area.
European Parliament and Council (1997) Regulation (EC) No 258 97 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997 concerning novel foods and novel food ingredients. Off J Europ Commun L43 1 European Parliament and Council (2001) Directive 2001 18 EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms. Off J Europ Commun L106 1 European Parliament and Council (2003) Regulation (EC) No 1829 2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2003 on genetically modified food and feed. Off J Europ Commun L268 1
Identifying the body mass index (BMI) as a fifth vital sign may also increase physician awareness and prompt counseling. This method was successfully used in a recent study where a smoking status stamp was placed on the patient chart, alongside blood pressure, pulse, temperature, and respiratory rate (15). Use of prompts, alerts, or other reminders has been shown to significantly increase physician performance of other health maintenance activities as well (9,16). Once the patient is identified as overweight or obese, printed food and activity diaries and patient information sheets on a variety of topics such as the food guide pyramid, deciphering food labels, healthy snacking, dietary fiber, aerobic exercise and resistance training, and dealing with stress can be used to support behavior change and facilitate patient education. Ready-to-copy materials can be obtained from a variety of sources free of charge such as those found in the Practical Guide, or for a minimal fee from other...
Historically, numerous guidelines have been established in the United States, Canada, Europe, United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, and the Nordic countries. The major ones are guidelines of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for food additives (30, 31), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA Toxic Substance Control Act TSCA and Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act FIFRA ) (32-36), European Economic Community Council (37,38), United Kingdom (39-41), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD (28), and Japan Ministry of Health and Welfare (42, 43). These guidelines define the battery of tests the OECD guidelines, especially, also provide detailed procedures for the conduct of these assays.
IUPAC recommendations defining ADI (acceptable daily intake), TDI (tolerable daily intake), TWI (tolerable weekly intake), and toxicity were given in the Introduction. ADI is used for food additives and TDI for contaminants. Other terms of interest in relation to risk assessment of EMs are reference dose and upper level of tolerable intake (UL). The US Environmental Protection Agency has replaced ADI and TDI with the single term, reference dose (RfD), which is defined as an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a daily exposure for the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious
- GM crops and food that are allowed onto the market must be safe, thus there is no need for labelling and traceability. Concerns have been raised that food labels, stating that the food is composed from or contains GM ingredients, may mislead consumers into thinking that it is a warning label. This is misleading. Other health-related information would be more informative and beneficial to the consumers, such as country of origin labelling and whether farming practices and food processing follows agreed-upon international standards. - Food labelling and traceability are impractical.As food ingredients are provided from different suppliers, farmers, food processors and manufacturers from different regions would be required to keep track of all the GM ingredients in the food and whether the GM components are above or below certain allowable levels.
Attention deficit disorder (hyperkinetic syndrome) is characterized by restlessness, impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, and short attention span. It is more common in boys. There is often a history of birth trauma or other cerebral insult in early life. Aggressive behaviour, low intelligence, epilepsy, minor motor abnormalities, and minor EEG changes are sometimes present. Food additives, as in coloured sweets or drinks, may exacerbate the symptoms. A behavioural-modification programme combined with special teaching methods at school is the treatment of choice. Avoiding food additives may be helpful. The most effective short-term drug treatment is, paradoxically, with a cerebral stimulant such as dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate, or pemoline. These drugs have many adverse effects, including stunting growth, and they may
As part of its program begun in 1971 to evaluate the safety of chemicals, the OECD developed Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. This collection of the most relevant internationally agreed upon testing methods is to be used by government, industry, and independent laboratories when testing the safety of new and existing chemicals as well as chemical preparations such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and food additives. These guidelines cover tests for physical-chemical properties, human health effects, environmental effects, and degradation and accumulation in the environment.
United States Food and Drug Administration. Toxicological Principles for the Safety Assessment of Direct Food Additives and Color Additives Used in Foods, Redbook I. Bureau of Foods, 1982. USFDA. United States Food and Drug Administration. Toxicological Principles for the Safety Assessment of Direct Food Additives and Color Additives Used in Foods, Redbook II. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Draft. USEPA. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Health Effects Testing Guidelines, Part 798, Subpart F-Genetic Toxicity. Fed Reg 50 39435-39458, 1985. USEPA. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Guidelines for Mutagenicity Risk Assessment. Fed Reg 51 34006-34012, 1986.
A number of interesting humectants are available as cosmetic ingredients. Most of them have a long and safe history of use, and several are also accepted as food additives. A potential drawback of the low-molecular weight substances are their stinging potential, since they may be absorbed into the skin. The high-molecular weight substances usually do not penetrate the skin instead they are suggested to reduce the irritation potential of surfactants. However, case reports of urticarial reactions have been reported after exposure to modified proteins 54 .
European and North American cultures tend to add spices such as bay leaf, coriander, or cinnamon, in boiling or simmering water or by steaming, to release their flavors. But South Asians roast (dry or in oil), braise, or saute whole and ground spices, such as cumin, coriander, fennel, cardamom, mustard seeds, clove, cinnamon sticks, nigella, and ajwain, before adding them to curries and condiments. Even leafy spices, such as kari leaf, are sometimes fried in oil to give extra crunchiness and a roasted aroma. The pungent and aromatic sensations of many South Asian foods are due to these prepared spices. Indians traditionally roast mustard seeds in oil to intensify their flavor, braise fresh kari leaf to remove its bitter green taste, and saute asafetida to create a sweet flavor. In many cultures around the world, spices are prepared with certain basic tools. On a domestic level, mortars and pestles, woks, or kwalis are the basic spice tools needed for spice preparation. Mortars and...
How Prepared and Consumed lemongrass enhances many ingredients and does not dominate the flavor profile of a dish. It pairs well with garlic, galangal, shallots, cilantro, turmeric, kaffir lime leaves, candlenuts, ginger, chicken, pork, fish, and chile peppers. Lemongrass is used whole in soups or is chopped and pounded for use in soups, stews, curries, laksas, rendangs, and condiments of Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Malaysia. The ubiquitous sambals of Southeast Asia contain blended lemongrass as an essential ingredient with chilies, garlic, ginger, and shallots.
North Indians use dill seed in braised beans, lentils, and other vegetable dishes. Dillweed is used to flavor green, leafy vegetables, especially spinach. It is an essential flavoring in dhansak, a popular meat, lentil, and vegetable dish of the Parsi community in Bombay. In the United States, Indian dill seed is used in sausages, cheeses, condiments, breads, pickles, and salad dressings. Dillweed is used in fish sauces and salad dressings.
In the United States, paprika is valued for its coloring and mild flavor. It provides visual appeal for lighter colored foods. Paprika is used to color and garnish potatoes, cheeses, eggs (deviled eggs), salad dressings, fish, soups, and vegetables, and drizzled over meats and chicken. It is used commercially in sausages, condiments, salad dressings, and other meat products. It flavors stuffings containing olives, fish, and rice. Southwestern and Texas cuisines enjoy paprika in their chilis, soups, stews, and sauces. It goes well with the added cumin, oregano, coriander, and cilantro.
Dishes, salads, vegetable juices, stuffing, charcuterie, and legume dishes. It enhances pork, chicken, hamburgers, fish chowders, soups, and sausages. Savory is normally added toward the end of cooking so its flavor is not destroyed. Commercially, savory is used in liqueurs, bitters, vermouths, condiments, gravy, soup mixes, and confections.
How Prepared and Consumed caraway pairs well with garlic, vinegar, juniper, breads, pork, vegetables, and fruits. It tends to dominate the flavor in foods. It adds a savory sweetness to cakes, crackers, cheeses, applesauce, onion bread, potato soups, and cabbage. In Europe, it is a popular spice used in meats, vegetables, condiments, ice cream, marinade,s and pickling solutions. Germans use caraway abundantly in their cooking to flavor breads, meats, vegetables, cheeses, sauces, sauerbraten, and sauerkraut. It is an indispensable ingredient in rye bread and roast pork. In Dutch foods, it is a popular flavoring for cheese. The British serve tea and seedcake with cinnamon and caraway seeds. Central Europeans coat caraway with sugar or use caraway candies to sweeten their breath after meals. Caraway is the essential flavoring in a European liqueur called kummel, consumed and produced in Germany and Scandinavia. Italians boil chestnuts with caraway before roasting them. Alsatians serve a...
Lovage belongs to the parsley family, and its seeds, leaves, and roots are commonly used in Europe for flavoring foods and beverages and for their medicinal properties. The Romans, who introduced lovage to Europe, used it widely in their cooking as well as to reduce fevers and treat stomach ailments. Germans called it maggikraut because its aroma reminded them of maggi cubes (meaty yeast extracts). Today it is popular in South and Central European cuisines.
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