Cure Eye Floaters Naturally

Eye Floaters No More

Eye Floaters (Also known as Eye Flashes) are deposits of various sizes and shapes that float within the eye. They are caused by degenerative changes of the vitreous humour the clear gel that fills the eyeball. Eye infections, inflammation, wounds and damage to the eye can lead to eye floaters. A sudden increase in floaters can be one of the first signs of retinal detachment or other severe eye conditions. In Eye Floaters No More, you'll discover: How to finally get rid of your stressful eye floaters, blocks of vision, the flashing lights using a safe, natural and easy system. Eliminate your annoying eye floaters from the comfort of your home. How to prevent more eye floaters from forming. How to find out if your eye floaters are a sign of other eye conditions. Easy, natural ways to drastically improve your vision. Read more...

Eye Floaters No More Overview

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Recently several visitors of blog have asked me about this manual, which is being advertised quite widely across the Internet. So I decided to buy a copy myself to find out what all the publicity was about.

Overall my first impression of this book is good. I think it was sincerely written and looks to be very helpful.

Agerelated Macular Degeneration

The aim of Ramirez et al. (2001) was to study the astrocytes of young human retinas and the paraphysio-logical changes that occur to them with aging and pathologic changes resulting from macular degeneration (AMD). The study was conducted on enucleated human eyes taken from the Spanish eye bank two to four hours post mortem for cornea transplants and were classified in three age groups (young, elderly, and with AMD). The astrocytes of the young subjects had numerous thin protrusions that surrounded the capillaries of the cell ganglion layer (CGL), forming a honeycomb plexus. The astroglial sheath around the vessels is very thick, and the capillaries are held together by many astroglial bundles. The gaps in the astroglial honeycomb plexus in the rear pole of zone A (the area between the second and third divisions of the retinal artery branches, near to the optic disk) are circular and very small in younger individuals, but have a quadrangular form in older individuals. In zone B (from...

Human Studies Of Macular Degeneration

Mendelian linkage and association studies In addition to ARMD, several Mendelian forms of macular degenerations have been described. The age of onset, pattern of inheritance, and clinical characteristics of these diseases vary widely. To date, about 17 human Mendelian macular degeneration genes have been mapped (Tuo, Bojanowski, and Chan, 2004). So far genes for nine different forms of human Mendelian macular degenerations have been identified using a positional cloning approach. These genes can be broadly classified into two groups genes that are expressed in photorecep-tors (ELOVL4, RDS peripherin, RPGR, and ABCA4) and genes expressed in RPE (Bestrophin, EFEMP1, TIMP3, Hemicentin-1, and CTRP5). The genes ELOVL4, RDS, RPGR, and ABCA4 are expressed in both rod and cone photoreceptors. Except for the ELOVL4 gene, mutations in the remaining three genes were shown to be associated with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in addition to macular degeneration. Mutations in TIMP3, EFEMP1,...

Animal Models Of Macular Degeneration

Limited access to appropriate biological materials, especially eye samples from affected donors at different stages of the disease, are an absolute necessity to study mechanisms underlying the macular degenerations. Because it is nearly impossible to obtain these human retinal tissues from patients or from normal controls, animal models play a crucial role for investigating the biological pathway of disease development and for testing therapeutic strategies. Because age-related macular degeneration shares phenotypic similarities with monogenic macular degenerations, manipulation of these genes associated with monogenic macular degenerations to develop transgenic mouse models has been popular. Over the past few years, genetic engineering technologies has allowed the generation of a rapidly growing number of animal models for retinal diseases (Chader, 2002). Animal models have been used to investigate potentially protective therapeutic agents to treat photoreceptor degeneration, stem...

Floaters and submerged plants

Though not as flashy as some of the others, floaters and submerged plants are important to a successful water garden. Floaters are welcome because they help fulfill that two-thirds-coverage requirement for the water garden's surface. They also provide shelter for fish and use nutrients that may otherwise feed unwanted amounts of algae. Favorite floaters and submerged plants include eelgrass, fairy moss, parrot's feather, water hyacinth, water lettuce, and hornwort. Many popular floaters and submerged plants are a problem in the wild. They multiply amazingly fast, clogging waterways and upsetting the balance of nature. It's now illegal to sell or transport some. So don't cheat buy only

Reaching beyond Researchers

A number of Web sites aim to inform the general public, but prove useful for researchers. They can help with teaching or setting scientific work in a broader context. The American Federation for Aging Research's Info-Aging, for example, offers explanations of a number of topics under several headings. Topics in the ''Biology of Aging'' section include oxidative damage, telomeres, stem cells, and biomarkers of aging. Each one summarizes crucial issues, addresses basic questions, provides links to related research, and points readers toward other resources in addition, they are reviewed by experts in each field. The ''Disease Center'' similarly contains key information and questions on some age-related illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease, macular degeneration, and osteoporosis, and the ''Healthy Aging Center'' discusses issues such as nutrition, stress, hearing, and immunization.

Hyperhomocysteinaemia

Together with vitamins B12 and B6, folic acid has been shown to reduce high plasma levels of homocysteine. Of the three, folate appears to have the strongest activity (Voutilainen et al 2001). Although elevated homocysteine has been implicated as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease (including atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease), cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease and venous thromboembolism (Clarke et al 1991, den Heijer 1996, Malinow et al 1989, Selhub 1995), exudative age-related macular degeneration, noise-related hearing loss, cognitive dysfunction, and adverse pregnancy outcomes (Gok et al 2004, Nowak et al 2005), cognitive dysfunction, and adverse pregnancy outcomes (Bjorke Monsen & Ueland 2003), clinical trials are currently underway to determine the clinical relevance of this association.

RNAi In Clinical Cancer Therapy

In concept, diseases such as cancer, which are characterized by overexpression or aberrant activation of specific oncogenes, are suitable candidates for nucleic acid-based gene-silencing therapies. Several nucleic acid drugs that are based on ODNs were under clinical trials and Vitravene (sodium fomivirsen) has been used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the eye in clinics (2,3,5). Several ribozyme-based phase I II clinical trials are in early-phase of clinical evaluation for patients with breast cancer, colon cancer, and hepatitis (3). The problems of toxicity and poor clinical efficacy with antisense and ribosome molecules remain to be solved even after more than a decade of drug development attempts. Although the term RNAi was coined just 6 yr ago (23) and the application of siRNAs in mammalian cells was started only three years ago (27,28), RNAi is rapidly taking center stage of the development of nucleic acid-based therapeutics. siRNA-based biotechnology...

Contraindications

Cholinergic agonists, such as pilocarpine and carbachol, should be avoided in conditions where pupillary constriction and intraocular vascular congestion are undesirable, such as in acute iritis or visually significant lens changes. These agents should also be avoided where there is a history of, or predisposition to, retinal detachment, or a proven sensitivity to these agents, or, for the membrane delivery dosage form, the presence of acute infectious conjunctivitis or keratitis. Patients with severe asthma, bronchial obstruction, acute cardiac failure, active peptic ulcer, hyper-thyroidism, gastrointestinal spasm, urinary tract obstruction, Parkinsonism, recent myocardial infarction, and, perhaps, poorly controlled blood pressure disorders are at risk for having these conditions exacerbated by cholinergic agonists.3

Signs and symptoms

Any visual impairment occurring peracutely or acutely, such as blurred vision or floaters - especially unilaterally - should prompt immediate ophthalmological examination of the patient. Today, not tomorrow Symptomatic CMV retinitis is an emergency - once there is a black spot in the visual field, it will be permanent. All CMV treatment regimens can only prevent progression of lesions, not reverse them.

Children Of Centenarians

Health histories of a nationwide sample of centenarian offspring (n 176) and controls (n 166). The controls consisted of offspring whose parents were born in the same years as the centenarians but at least one of whom died at age 73, the average life expectancy for that birth cohort. The average age at death of the other parent was 77 years, the same as the spouses of the centenarians. Centenarian offspring were found to have a 56 reduced relative prevalence of heart disease, a 66 reduced relative prevalence of hypertension, and a 59 reduced relative prevalence of diabetes in multi-variate analyses that controlled for age, gender, years of education, annual income, IADL score, ethnicity, marital status, exercise, smoking, and alcohol use. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of a number of other age-related diseases including cancer, stroke, dementia, osteoporosis, cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, depression, Parkinson's disease, thyroid disease, and COPD....

Variation In The Type Quantity And Structure Of The Granules Of Lipofuscin

The cytoplasmic volume of the RPE occupied by lipofuscin increases with age, from 8 at age 40 to 29 at age 80. Furthermore, the cyto-plasmatic volume occupied by lipofuscin in the macula is greater than that in the periphery 19 in the macula versus 13 in the periphery. The excessive accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE cells slows the metabolic activity of the cells and predisposes them to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (Bird, 1997).

Senile Retina Detachment

It is not easy to define retinal detachment as senile. There are chorioretinal and vitreal alterations that are typically geriatric and may cause detachment of the retina choriocapillaries for nutrition. The retina is strongly held to the choroid in these degenerative foci. They almost never form holes or ruptures of the retina. This type of degeneration does not favor the detachment of the retina per se, but shows that there is wear and choroidal and retinal degeneration at the periphery that may favor the onset of retinal detachment. In fact, O'Malley and Allen (1967) observed that numerous patients who show cobblestone degeneration also have, near to these lesions, cystic degeneration of the retina, fence degeneration, retinoschisis, retinal holes and ruptures, and cysts of the pars plana. 3. Senile degeneration of the vitreous. After 50 years of age, in emmetropic eyes, a fibrillar and lacunar degeneration of the vitreous begins, slowly progressing, and may result in the posterior...

Models of Age Related Vision Problems

The visual system provides unique opportunities to study the aging process, as well as challenges in understanding and developing therapies for age-related eye diseases. Exposure of the lens to high levels of photo-oxidative stress and the lack of protein turnover in the lens nucleus make it an optimal system in which to study protein modifications in aging. Similarly, the high level of metabolic activity in the retina and the necessity for turning over large amounts of lipids provide particular research opportunities as well. Finally, visual diseases associated with aging are among the most common threats to the quality of life in the elderly. Of age-related visual diseases, three result in a particularly high burden on the population age-related cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and progressive open angle glaucoma. Thus, these are dealt with in some detail in this brief review. Because of space and formatting limitations, much work described in this review could not be...

Types Of Agerelated Visual Diseases And Their Impact On Society

The predominant causes of age-related visual impairment and blindness vary between the developed and developing countries, and even within various demographic and ethnic groups within single countries (Thylefors et al., 1995). There are many causes of visual loss in elderly patients, including diabetic retinopathy, stroke, and retinal vascular occlusive disease, along with other age-related visual diseases including pterygia and presbyopia. However, in most populations the greatest causes of blindness and vision loss in the elderly include cataracts, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration (Congdon, Friedman, and Lietman, 2003 Buch et al., 2004). African-derived populations, and increases with age. Finally, the greatest age-related cause of blindness in European-derived populations of developed countries is age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This degenerative disease progresses from fatty retinal deposits called drusen to neovascularization and retinal hemorrhage,...

Scope Of Ethical Issues Addressed In This Chapter

G, a 79-year-old widowed, white woman, has been admitted to the short-stay unit of a comprehensive geriatric health care center after discharge from the hospital for hip replacement. She has been discharged to the short-stay unit as part of a contract arrangement between the hospital and the geriatric health care center. Her care plan includes postsurgical follow-up, physical therapy, and planning for the future. Her medical problems include mild heart failure and moderate visual impairment, secondary to macular degeneration. She also has moderate right-side hearing loss. Her poor eyesight contributed to the fall that resulted in her broken hip. This fall occurred at home, where Mrs. G lives alone. She has lived in this home for 50 years and alone in this home since her husband died 10 years ago. She has three children, her oldest, a son, and two daughters, all of whom are married with children of their own. She is closest to her youngest child, who is 49 and has three teenage...

Taking care of the plants

Don't toss the pieces back in the water where they can break down and foul and water Add them to the compost pile or dig them straight into a vegetable-garden's soil. For potentially invasive floaters and submerged plants, play it safe and add them and their prunings to the household garbage.

Selected Photomicrographs

Figure 28-2. (A) Light micrograph of cornea. The five layers of the cornea are indicated, cpi corncal epithelium bm - Bowman's membrane str stroma dm Descemet's membrane endo corneal endothelium. (B) Light micrograph of retina. The 10 layers of the retina are indicated. The asterisk indicates the site of retinal detachment the double asterisk indicates the presence of sodium ion channels the triple asterisk indicates the site of action potential generation. (C) Light micrograph of iris. The posterior surface of the iris is lined by two layers of simple columnar epithelium, which are derived embryologically from the outer pigment layer (out) and inner (in) neural layer of the optic cup. Both of these layers are so highly pigmented that the two cell layers cannot be distinguished (see dotted line for boundary). The iris contains the dilator pupillae muscle and sphincter pupillae muscle, which are formed from the epirhelium of the outer pigment layer (out) by a transformation of these...

Ophthalmic Diseases

Control of angiogenesis in the retina is essential to the preservation of vision. Ocular neovascularization (NV) is a major threat to vision and a complicating feature of many eye diseases, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinopathy of prematurity. Regulation of vascularization in the mature retina involves a balance between endogenous positive growth factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor), and inhibition of angio-genesis e.g., pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) . Several studies examined ocular administration of AAV vectors to mice exhibiting ischemia-induced retinal NV. Expression of antiangiogenic proteins, either PEDF or the Kringle domains 1-3 of angiostatin (K1K3), gave sustained therapeutic levels of PEDF and K1K3 in the mouse eye and significantly reduced the level of retinal NV (266,267). Expression of a soluble VEGF receptor also led to significant reduction in the number of neovascular endothelial cells...

The Discovery Of Heparin And Its First Clinical

This 62-yr-old white woman was admitted to the Hitchcock Hospital Feb. 8, 1955, with left retinal detachment, complicating longstanding myopia Left scleral buckling was carried out on Feb. 10, and strict bed rest was required during the ensuing 3 wk. On her beginning ambulation, on March 6, signs and symptoms of left iliofemoral thrombophlebitis were noted, for which systemic heparinization was begun ( heparin sodium in divided subcutaneous doses, totaling 150-300 mg per day ). On March 16, after 10 days of anticoagulation therapy, sudden signs of right common femoral arterial occlusion led to the diagnosis of common femoral arterial embolism. Successful femoral embolectomy was carried out. She was kept on adequate heparinization and made a satisfactory initial recovery until March 19, when signs of sudden occlusion of the distal aorta appeared.

Ophthalmic Conditions

Bilberry preparations have been used to improve poor night vision, light adaptation and photophobia, myopia and to prevent or retard diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and cataracts. Primarily the collagen-enhancing and antioxidant activities of bilberry provide a theoretical basis for these indications. Visual acuity and light adaptation A systemic review of 12 placebo-controlled trials (5 RCTs and 7 placebo-controlled non-randomised trials) concluded that the 2007 Elsevier Australia One double-blind study involving 40 patients with diabetic and or hypertensive retinopathy showed that a dose of bilberry extract (Tegens ) equivalent to 160 mg anthocyanosides taken twice daily for 1 month significantly improved ophthalmoscopic parameters and angiographic parameters (Perossini 1987). Another study of 31 subjects with different forms of retinopathy (diabetic retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, macular degeneration or haemorrhage due to anticoagulant use) found that treatment with...

Some Diseases Of The Visual System Retina and Optic Nerve Lesions

Retinal Detachment Retinal detachment (RD) presents with a history of recurrent flashes or floaters in the same area of the visual field. The patient typically complains of a cloud or curtain obscuring part of the field. It usually starts and is most dense peripherally and extends toward central vision. Visual acuity is normal unless or until the macula detaches. An inferior detachment with a superior field defect can be present for a long time before the patient is aware of it. The fundus shows an elevated retina that is gray and wrinkled and undulates. Macular Degeneration Macular degeneration begins at any age but is most common over 60 years. Slow loss of visual acuity occurs bilaterally and is worse in bright light and better in the dark recovery of vision is slow after exposure to a bright flash of light. The macula may appear normal initially. There are central and paracentral scotomas. Fluorescein retinal angiography and the Amsler grid are helpful in diagnosis. Be careful and...

Age Related Diseases of the Human Retina

It is very common to encounter senile lesions of the eyes and therefore a reduction in the acuity of vision and also peripheral chorioretinal lesions, which cause severe retinal lesions such as senile retinal detachment. The interest in studying geriatric changes to vision lies in identifying the first lesions as early as possible. Not that it is possible, at least up to now, to impede the inexorable evolution of the degenerative phenomena, but an early diagnosis can at least allow us to greatly slow this process. With the passing of the years, the normal architecture of the retina undergoes modifications starting from the ora serata toward the posterior pole for a variable distance. At the posterior pole of the Bruch's membrane (drusen), lipid or calcium carbonate soap deposits and capillarosis (obliterated aneurisms) are seen. Dry and wet macular degeneration are clinical pictures often discussed in pathology. Finally, the cystoids of the macula begin with an edema with brilliant...

Some success stories

Results of genome-wide association studies are only now starting to be published, but a surge of results is expected over the next couple of years. Initial results are promising. For example, the first large scale association studies for schizophrenia (Mah et al., 2006) and Parkinson's disease (Maraganore et al., 2005) both identified variants in genes not previously considered for these diseases but which were interesting functional candidates. A genome-wide association study of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly) found (with a very small sample size) association (p< 10 7) with a polymorphism in the gene for complement factor H. This gene was simultaneously studied in positional candidate gene association studies (Edwards et al., 2005 Haines et al., 2005) of genes in the previously reported linkage region (1q31-32). The functional variant was identified as tyrosine-histidine change at amino acid 402, with possession of at least one...

Summary

With respect to sensation and perception, presbyopia (old-sighted-ness), cataracts, and presbycusis (inner-ear deafness) are common accom-paniers of aging. More severe but also less common disorders of vision, such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, and retinal detachment, also increase with aging. The senses of touch, vibration, temperature, pain, kinesthetic, and balance decline with aging. Although inevitable, age-related changes in the internal organs and sense receptors vary greatly from person to person. Heredity is certainly a factor in determining structural and functional changes with aging, but injury, disease, nutrition, exercise, smoking, environmental pollution, and other lifestyle factors exert considerable influences on the rate and severity of these changes.

Vitreous Sampling

Sampling of the vitreous for toxicological and other forensic investigation (3,4) or for microbiologic studies (6) is best performed on an eye that is intact and without known structural intraocular pathology, such as a retinal detachment. A 15-gauge needle is inserted at an oblique angle through the sclera at a point 5 mm lateral to the limbus (corneo-scleral junction) (Fig. 7-1). The needle will traverse the pars plana and enter the vitreous body. Damage to the retinal cells will result in a falsely high potassium value (the correct vitreous potassium concentration can be used for a rough estimation of the postmortem interval) and thus gentle aspiration of 2-3 mL of vitreous is required. The material, which is drawn into a 10 mL sterile syringe may be stored at 4 C for up to 48 h (see also p. 16 and 113).

Organ Toxicity

Good biomarkers for organ toxicity are preferably obtained by non-invasive means thus, urinalysis by NMR is arguably the most effective tool for cataloguing nephro-toxicity. Conventional clinical biomarkers are enzyme-based and thus relatively inexpensive for screening purposes. These typically include enzymes such as y-GT, intermediates like ALA, and breakdown products in urine (5-hydroxymethyluracil). However, the disadvantage of serum enzymes is that changes tend to be transient and usually only indicate significant pathological damage. Because NMR is nonselective for most low molecular weight intermediates of metabolism, its advantage is in exploring biomarkers that may be detected by other methods only with great difficulty. Compared with bile and plasma, urine is relatively easy to analyze, as reflected by exhaustive reviews of urinalysis for model drug compounds and drugs in development, reported elsewhere 17 . Centrifugation and filtering are the minimal sample preparations...

Future Directions

New genotyping technologies now enable hundreds of thousands of markers to be assayed in large numbers of samples, at a reasonable cost. It is estimated that there are approximately 11 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genome with a minor allele frequency of 1 or greater, of which approximately seven million have a frequency of 5 or greater (38,39). Currently available genotyping platforms provide marker sets which, although not yet perfect, should provide a high degree of coverage of the common variants in the genome (40). The potential of GWA studies is exemplified by the identification of a common polymorphic variant in CFH that confers an increased risk of age-related macular degeneration (41). Two GWA studies of breast cancer have been recently published.

Duplication 2p

Partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 2 is characterized by craniofacial features including microcephaly, a prominent forehead and or glabella, short nose with a broad bridge and prominent tip, high-arched palate, micrognathia, pointed chin, and low-set and dysplastic ears cardiac and genitourinary malformations and skeletal or digital anomalies may be present. Ophthalmic features include hypertelorism, epicanthus, strabismus, narrow palpebral fissures, blepharoptosis and ble-pharophimosis, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, cataract, retinal detachment and dysplasia, tortuosity of the retinal vessels, optic atrophy, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and

Brief Overview

Macular degenerations are a phenotypically and geno-typically heterogeneous group of blinding disorders characterized by central vision loss associated with RPE atrophy with or without choroidal neovascularization. Of these, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disorder of the cone-rich macular and perimacular regions of the retina with resulting loss of central visual acuity. Although AMD principally affects the supporting and metabolic structures of the retina including the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, the choriocapillaris, and Bruch's membrane, vision loss comes from the resulting retinal atrophy and its associated photoreceptor dysfunction (see Figure 68.3). Visual dysfunction is made worse by neovascularization, the ingrowth of choroidal vessels through defects in Bruch's membrane, with secondary hemorrhage, and retinal detachment that characterize the ''wet'' form of AMD. This is contrasted to the ''dry'' or nonneovascular form, which comprises 80...

Figure 2314

Photograph depicting the visual field in individuals with age- maximize their remaining vision, individuals with this condition related macular degeneration. Note that central vision is absent are instructed to use eccentric fixation of their eyes, because of the changes in the macula region of the retina. To

Duplication 15q

Duplication of long arm of chromosome 15 results in mental and postnatal growth retardation with microcephaly associated with craniofacial features including microdolichocephaly, prominent occiput, sloping forehead, large, low-set ears, prominent bulbous nose, long philtrum and a midline crease in the upper lip, high-arched palate, and micrognathia. Ophthalmic manifestations include downward slanting of the palpebral fissures, narrow palpebral fissures, epicanthus, strabismus, blepharoptosis, cataract, retinal detachment, and microphthalmia.58,121,143,315,397

Acknowledgements

Crabb, J.W., Miyagi, M., Gu, X. et al. (2002). Drusen proteome analysis an approach to the etiology of age-related macular degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 99, 14682-7. Edwards, A.O., Ritter, R., 3rd, Abel, K.J. et al. (2005). Complement factor H polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration. Science, 308, 421-4. Evans, J. (2003). Age-related macular degeneration. In Johnson, G. J., Minassian, D. C., Weale, R. A. and West, S. K. (eds.), The epidemiology of eye disease, pp. 356-69. London Arnold. Fisher, S. A., Abecasis, G. R., Yashar, B. M. et al. (2005). Meta-analysis of genome scans of age-related macular degeneration. Hum Mol Genet, 14, 2257-64. Geirsdottir, A., Stefansson, E., Jonasson, F. et al. (2005). Do all individuals with a family history of age-related maculopathy (ARM) develop age-related macular degeneration (AMD) if they live to be 100 years old Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, A3310. Hageman, G.S., Anderson, D.H., Johnson, L.V. et al. (2005). A common haplotype in...

Agerelated cataract

Fovea Blood Pressure

(strictly, the centre of the fovea (foveola) shows maximum acuity). (redrawn from remort.wz.cz retina II images DRAWEYE.png). (b) Drainage of aqueous humor, which is formed by the ciliary body, into the trabecular meshwork. Drainage abnormalities are implicated in glaucoma (redrawn from www.ahaf.org glaucoma about aqueousflowBorder.jpg). (c) Normal human retinal fundus photograph showing the macula lutea, the small pigmented spot at the centre of the posterior retina, which is damaged in age-related macular degeneration. The term macula commonly refers to the area of central retina (area centralis) lying between the superior and inferior temporal retinal arteries (vascular arcades). The underlying retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane are not seen. (d) Human retinal fundus photograph from a patient with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) showing abnormal extracellular deposits or drusen, one of the clinical hallmarks of AMD, in the macular region. (e) Schematic diagram...

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