Make Your Own Fertilizer

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils.

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Summary


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Molybdenum Fertilizers

Several molybdenum sources can be used to prevent or alleviate molybdenum deficiency in crop plants (Table 13.4). These sources vary considerably in their solubility and in molybdenum content, and their effectiveness often depends primarily on the method of application, plant requirements, and on various soil factors (87). The relative solubilities of some molybdenum fertilizers are as follows sodium molyb-date ammonium molybdate molybdic acid molybdenum trioxide molybdenum sulfide (114). Molybdenum frits can also be used to supply Mo, but because of their limited solubility, they must be ground finely to be effective (89). Because of the low plant requirement for molybdenum and its mobility in plant tissues, several methods of molybdenum application are possible including soil application, foliar fertilization, and seed treatment with various molybdenum sources. Molybdenum fertilizers can be incorporated into the soil by banding or by broadcast applications. Soluble sources of...

Fertilizers For Chlorine

Chlorine is added to soil from a wide variety of sources that include chloride from rainwater, irrigation waters, animal manures, plant residues, fertilizers, and some crop protection chemicals. The amount of chloride deposited annually from the atmosphere varies from 18 to 36 kg1 ha1 year1 for continental areas to more than 100 kg1 ha1 year1 for coastal areas (4). Most of the chloride applied as animal manures or plant residues is soluble and readily available for crop uptake. Because most of the chloride in animal manure is probably present in the liquid fraction, manure management and handling may influence the concentration of chloride. Potassium chloride is the most widely applied chloride fertilizer. Although KCl is usually intended as a potassium fertilizer, it in effect supplies 0.9 kg of chloride for each kg of potassium. Other chloride fertilizers include NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, and NH4Cl (Table 9.3). All these salts are soluble and readily available to supply chloride for plant...

Whats your type Deciding on the kind of fertilizer

As you may know, fertilizer contains three main elements (nutrients) critical for good plant growth nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Nitrogen is the one that enhances foliage and stem growth. That's why nitrogen dominates lawn fertilizers. Common formulations include 22-3-7 and 21-0-0. Chapter 4 covers garden fertilizer in some detail, but here I discuss fertilizer that's strictly for lawn use. When you go shopping for lawn fertilizer, read the labels very carefully (see Figure 10-5). You'll probably find three types Quick-release lawn fertilizer With this fertilizer, you get a gratifyingly quick response the lawn greens right up after application. However, because the lawn consumes it quickly, you have to apply frequent subsequent doses. Slow-release lawn fertilizer This plant food supplies the same nutritive benefits as quick-release fertilizer but not as quickly. You can expect consistent, sustained growth, and you don't need to apply it as often. A mix of both A...

Compost More than Just a Fertilizer

Yeah, I also talk about compost in the fertilizer section, but compost is useful and necessary to your garden in so many ways other than as plain fertilizer. Because it's organically rich, with good texture, compost is just about the best thing you can add to soil. What works best really depends on the type and fertility of your native soil, but you can't go wrong digging in quite a lot of compost. Compost lightens heavy clay soil and gives needed substance to sandy soil. Less-extreme soils can still benefit.

Fertilizers For Boron

Modern crop production depends on addition of fertilizers to supplement natural soil fertility. Historically, crop production management has progressed to more intensive methods. Precise nutrient management has become essential for sustainable agricultural production systems. Addition of all plant nutrients must be considered for optimum crop production. With intensification of crop production, the need for micronutrient fertilization increases. Boron deficiency has been recognized as one of the most common micronutrient problems in agriculture. 8.8.1 Types of Fertilizers Before the nineteenth century, Tibet was the world's source of borates. During the nineteenth century, commercially viable deposits were discovered in Italy, Turkey, South America, and the United States. The largest known borate deposits occur in the interior plateau of Turkey. The second largest occur in the Mojave Desert. Other countries having substantial borate deposits are the former Soviet Union, Argentina,...

Mix and Match Organic fertilizer

Make your own custom organic fertilizer for almost any plant, says Bill Wolf, co-author of Rodale's Chemical-Free Yard and Garden. In general terms, there are three basic nutrients that a good general organic fertilizer should supply nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. You can save money by buying organic amendments that supply these nutrients and mixing them yourself in the proportions Bill recommends. The specific quantities of each nutrient will vary according to the materials you use, but all will give a balanced supply of nutrients.

Fast tun and t3bulous fertilizer Quickfixes

Feed the soil, and the soil will feed your plants. That's one of the basic tenets of organic gardening. In most cases, an annual application of rich compost or well-aged manure will provide enough nutrients and organic matter to sustain your plants all through the growing season. Even so, your garden will probably need a quick pick-me-up from time to time. That doesn't mean that you have to run out to the garden center and drop some cash on an expensive fertilizer. Chances are you have the ingredients for making your own inexpensive, earth-friendly plant food right at hand. We've polled garden experts from around the country for their favorite fertilizer formulas. Many of these fertilizer mixes, blends, and solutions provide more than the big three nutrients of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. They also include vital mi-cronutrients, plant growth hormones, soil conditioners, and even disease and insect fighters. Some of these time-tested fertilizer formulas include traditional,...

Fertilizers For Magnesium

6.6.1 Kinds of Fertilizers Magnesium-containing fertilizers are derived from the mining of natural mineral deposits or through synthetic processing. Organic magnesium sources include most manures (209). The magnesium availability to plants from different fertilizers will be dictated by the water solubility of the compounds, release rates from fertilizer coatings (where applicable), and particle size, with the finer particles solubilizing more quickly than the coarser-grade fertilizers. Magnesium concentrations and solubility characteristics for some common fertilizers are listed in Table 6.3. 6.6.2 Effects of Fertilizers on Plant Growth Although the requirements for magnesium is low relative to other macronutrients such as nitrogen (222), the effect of magnesium fertilization on plant growth may vary with the form of magnesium used and the fertilizer texture (coarseness) (223). Therefore, the type of magnesium fertilizer to use will depend on variables such as the type of crop and the...

Nickel Fertilizers

Essentially under all normal field conditions, it is unlikely that application of nickel fertilizer will be required. Exceptions to this concept occur when urea is the primary source of nitrogen supply, in species in which ureides play an important physiological role (2), when excessive applications of

Nitrogen Fertilizers

Soils have little capacity to retain oxidized forms of nitrogen, and ammonium accumulation in soils is small consequently, most of the soil nitrogen is associated with organic matter. Release of nitrogen from organic matter is slow and unpredictable. If soil organic matter is depleted, as occurs in cultivated soils, nitrogen for plant growth is limited. Nitrogen is usually the most deficient nutrient in cultivated soils of the world, and fertilization of these soils with nitrogen is required. To maintain or increase productivity of soils, worldwide consumption of nitrogen fertilizers continues to increase with time (Figure 2.3). However, the consumption of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers has leveled. Anhydrous ammonia (NH3 gas) is the starting product for manufacture of most nitrogen fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is manufactured from hydrogen and nitrogen gases by the Haber process (Haber-Bosch process). The reaction is performed at high temperature (400 to 500oC) and high...

Getting annuals in the ground

Just follow the label directions for spacing, a nd dig a hole deeper and wider than the root ball. Add some compost to the hole or mix the native soil with organic matter (see Chapter 4 for details). If desired, you can add some dry fertilizer in the planting hole and water it in, or you can fertilize the annual after planting (check out the upcoming Fertilizing section).

Diagnostic Criteria 121 Visual Diagnosis

Time for remedial action to take place. Generally, however, if symptoms have appeared, irreparable damage has occurred, with quantity or quality of yields being suppressed or diminished with annual crops or with slowing or damaging of growth and development of perennial crops. Also, symptoms that resemble nutrient deficiency can develop on plants as a result of conditions that are not related to nutrient deficiencies, for example, drought, wet soils, cold soils, insect or disease infestations, herbicide damage, wind, mechanical damage, salinity, or elemental toxicities. Deficiency symptoms are only one of several diagnostic criteria that can be used to assess the nutritional status of plants. Plant analysis, biological tests, soil analysis, and application of fertilizers containing the nutrient in question are additional tools used in diagnosis of the status of plant nutrition.

Cattle Bos primigenius f taurus

Cattle are the oldest domestic animals. Their importance lies in giving meat, milk, and working power. Leather, fat, hooves, and horns are also valuable, and dried excrements are used as fuel, building material, and fertilizer. Cattle were first used as draft and riding animals, allowing people to drastically change their way of life. Some African people, for example the Hottentots, use them for riding even today. Cattle are the main source of meat and milk and the second most numerous domestic animal in the world, after domestic fowl. Under the cattle category, we can include the descendants of the aurochs, and those of other domestic cattle such as the yak, gayal, Bali cattle, and buffalo. They come from areas with extreme climatic conditions (high in the mountains or from the tropics), where they are used as domestic cattle. The kouprey (Bos sauveli) from the forests of Cambodia occupies a special place among cattle, for it may be the last surviving form of the wild ox, which went...

Fertilizing your shrubs

For newly planted shrubs, some people have found starter solutions useful. They consist of water soluble fertilizers (usually high in phosphorous) and vitamins and hormones that stimulate new root growth. Regular fertilizing can begin the second year Apply a general-purpose garden fertilizer, diluted according to the label directions. For best results, feed every two weeks or monthly throughout the growing season. If your yard's soil is good or the plants seem fine without fertilizer, of course, leave well enough alone.

Historical Information

Chlorine is classified as a micronutrient, but it is often taken up by plants at levels comparable to a macronutrient. Supplies of chlorine in nature are often plentiful, and obvious symptoms of deficiency are seldom observed. In many crops it is necessary to remove chlorine from air, chemicals, and water to induce symptoms of chlorine deficiency. Using precautions to establish a relatively chlorine-free environment, Broyer et al. (1) was able to convincingly demonstrate that chlorine is an essential nutrient. Although crop responses to chlorine applications in the field were suspected as early as the mid-1800s, it was not until fairly recently that chlorine was considered a potentially limiting nutrient for crop production under field conditions. In the 1980s, the responsiveness of some crops to chlorine fertilization became recognized more widely (2). Even though chlorine has gained the attention of agronomists, much of the focus on chlorine in terms of crop production continues to...

Fertilizing Your Vegetable Garden

The main nutrients are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), which is why the labels of general-purpose fertilizers have three numbers. A fertilizer such as 10-10-10 is a balanced fertilizer because it contains equal proportions of all three nutrients, whereas a 15-0-0 is obviously nitrogen-heavy. Other elements are necessary for plant growth, but plants need them in much smaller amounts, and they're often already present in the soil (also, many commercial fertilizers include them). Nitrogen enhances the growth of leaves and stems phosphorus helps flower, fruit, seed, and root production and potassium ensures general vigor and increases your plants' resistance to disease. So for most vegetable crops, your best bet is a balanced fertilizer. Fertilizer is anything, organic or inorganic, that provides nutrients for growing vegetable plants. (Soil conditioner, on the other hand, is material that improves your soil structure.) Just to give you some context, here are different...

Feeding ecology and diet

Herbivores Colorado

Given a selection of plants, most leporids choose those which are the most succulent, particularly during times of water stress. They also prefer plants in the pre-reproductive or early reproductive stages of development that have the greatest nutritive value. Like pikas, leporids select plants that are comparatively higher in moisture and crude protein. Given that plant quality and availability changes dramatically with the seasons, so does the diet of rabbits and hares. Most jackrabbits, for example, show preferences for shrubs in winter and for grasses and forbs in spring and summer. The tendency of rabbits and hares to gravitate toward the most nutritious plants also is responsible for their love of cultivated areas. Here agricultural crops, bolstered with nutrients from fertilizers, represent a cornucopia to lagomorphs, and often result in dramatic increases in their population density. On the other hand, in natural conditions hares often are close to

Significance to humans

Horseshoe crabs have been harvested for food and bait. They also have been processed into fertilizer. Perhaps most important, horseshoe crabs have enabled numerous human health advances. Studies of the eyes of horseshoe crabs have led to therapies for human eye disorders. The blood of horse-

Physical And Chemical Properties Of Nickel And Its Role In Animal And Bacterial Systems

The first evidence of a response of a field crop to application of a nickel fertilizer was demonstrated in 1945 for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) crops (25). In these crops, the application of a dilute nickel spray resulted in a significant increase in yield. These experiments were conducted on the 'Romney Marshes' of England, a region that is well known for its trace mineral deficiencies, particularly of manganese and zinc. These experiments were conducted very carefully and excluded the possibility that the nickel applied was merely substituting for manganese, zinc, iron, copper, or boron, suggesting that the growth response was indeed due to the application of nickel. Interestingly, the soils of this region may be low in nickel since the conditions that limit manganese and zinc availability in these soils (acid sands of low mineral content) would also limit nickel availability to crops, and the concentrations of nickel...

Basic Gardening Resources

Pest control and fertilizer suppliers. Harmony Farm Supply & Nursery 3244 Hwy. 116 North Sebastopol, CA 95472 Phone 707-823-9125 Web site Harmony offers a good selection of irrigation systems, organic fertilizers, pest controls, and tools. organic gardening pest controls, fertilizers,

Checking out the feeding schedule

First, you need to know when not to fertilize your lawn. For example, don't bother in the winter or off-season. Let a sleeping (or dormant) lawn lie. And don't feed in especially hot weather. Grass plants respond to the stress of blazingly hot days by slowing down their growth, and a jolt of fertilizer during this time isn't a good thing. That pretty much leaves spring and fall. You may also feed during the summer months, depending on the weather and the type of grass.

The nutrient solution

Hydroponics easy for the beginner not looking to make their own nutrients. When selecting a nutrient to use with your garden, there are a few things you need to look for. The most important factor is that the nutrient be designed SPECIFICALLY FOR HYDROPONIC application. Using a supplemental fertilizer like Miracle Grow or Peter's is not advised as these formulas are designed for use as a supplement to soil based gardens and do not contain the trace and micro-nutrients essential to the plant. the second consideration in choosing a nutrient is that of using a powder or liquid formula. Multi-purpose, single part powdered nutrients are o.k. for growing plants hydroponi-cally under low to moderate lighting conditions.

Determination of Inorganic Nitrogen

Nitrate is a soluble form of nitrogen that is subject to downward movement in soils in humid temperate climates (105). Sometimes, soil tests for nitrate in the top 15 or 30 cm of soils have not been well correlated with crop yields because of depletion of nitrate in these zones by leaching in humid regions (113). Good correlations between soil nitrate tests and crop yields have been noted with soil samples taken from 120- to 180-cm depth in the profile. Roth and Fox (125) reported nitrate concentrations that ranged from 36 to 295 kg N ha in the 120-cm profile following the harvest of corn. Soils fertilized with nitrogen applied at economiclly optimum amounts had nitrate concentrations ranging from 41 to 138 kg N ha. Soils with more than 169 kg nitrate-N ha in the 120-cm profile did not show an increase in corn yields in response to nitrogen fertilization. Jokela and Randall (124) reported that nitrate concentrations in a 150-cm profile ranged from 150 to 500 kg N ha over a range of...

Treating alreadyWeedy lawns

If your lawn were healthy, you wouldn't have so many weeds, and that's the truth. So what's wrong Are you not watering or feeding enough, which stresses the grass and eventually leads to sparser growth and areas where weeds can sneak in Are you mowing too low, which allows weeds to germinate Go read the earlier basic care sections on watering, fertilizer, and mowing to see what you can figure out.

Nitrogen Solutions 2832 N

These fertilizers are mixtures of ammonium nitrate and urea dissolved in water. In the solutions, half of the nitrogen is supplied as urea, and half is supplied as ammonium nitrate. Because of the difficulties in handling, urea and ammonium nitrate should not be mixed together in dry form. The

Manganese And Diseases

The most notable interaction between disease and manganese is that of the wheat disease takeall caused by the pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, commonly referred to as Ggt. The importance of manganese in the defence against infection by Ggt was demonstrated by Graham (23). Manganese is the unifying factor in the susceptibility of varieties to Ggt under several soil conditions, including changing pH and nitrogen forms as shown in a table by Graham and Webb (141). The role of manganese fertilizer in the amelioration of Ggt has been reported in numerous papers (137,142,143). The effect of manganese fertilizer on infection by Ggt has been shown to impact before the onset of foliar symptoms (137,142).

Inorganic Nitrogen in Soil

Soil inorganic nitrogen is commonly less than 2 of the total nitrogen of surface soils and undergoes rapid changes in composition and quantity. Inorganic nitrogen varies widely among soils, with climate, and with weather. In humid, temperate zones, soil inorganic nitrogen in surface soil is expected to be low in winter, to increase in spring and summer, and to decrease with fall rains, which move the soluble nitrogen into the depths of the soil (105). Despite being small in magnitude, the inorganic fraction is the source of nitrogen nutrition for plants. Unless supplied by fertilizers, inorganic nitrogen in soil is derived from the soil organic matter, which serves as a reserve of nitrogen for plant nutrition. Plant-available nitrogen is released from organic matter by mineralization and is transformed back into organic matter (microbial cells) by immobilization. Absorption by plants is the chief means of removal of inorganic nitrogen from soils, although nitrate leaching and...

Fractions of Nitrogen in Soil Organic Matter Following Acid Hydrolysis

Cultivation reduces the total amount of organic matter in soils but has little effect on the relative distribution of the organic fractions in soils, suggesting that the results of acid hydrolysis are of little value as soil tests for available nitrogen or for predicting crop yields (94). Humic substances contain about the same forms of nitrogen that are obtained from the acid hydrolysis of soils but perhaps in different distribution patterns (94). Agricultural systems that depend on soil reserves do not remain productive without the input of fertilizer nitrogen.

Determination Of Essentiality

The concept that nitrogen was acquired from the air or from soil organic matter was dismissed in the mid-1800s, as it was shown that crop yields rose as a result of fertilization of soil. Using laboratory methods of de Saussure, Boussingault (1), in field research of 1838, developed balances of carbon, dry matter, and mineral matter in crops. Boussingault established a special position for legumes in nitrogen nutrition, a position that Liebig did not support (1). Other research also showed that different nitrogen fertilizers varied in their effectiveness for supporting crop production, with potassium nitrate often being a better fertilizer than ammonium salts (1). Microbial transformations of nitrogen in the soil made it doubtful as to which source was actually the best and which form of nitrogen entered into plants. Studies made with sterile media and in water culture demonstrated that plants may utilize nitrate or ammonium and that one or the other might be superior depending on the...

Copper Deficiency In Plants

Deficiencies of micronutrients have increased in some crop plants due to increases in nutritional demands from high yields, use of high analysis (N, P, K) fertilizers with low micronutrient quantities, and decreased use of animal manure applications (40). Copper deficiency symptoms appear to be species-specific and often depend on the stage of deficiency (7). Reuther and Labanauskas (7) give a comprehensive description of deficiency symptoms for 36 crops, and readers are encouraged to consult this reference. In general, the terminal growing points of most plants begin to show deficiency symptoms first, a result of immobility of copper in plants. Most plants will exhibit rosetting, necrotic spotting, leaf distortion, and terminal dieback (7,33). Many plants also will show a lack of turgor and discoloration of certain tissues (7,33). Copper deficiency symptoms in lentil, faba bean, chickpea, and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were chlorosis, stunted growth, twisted young leaves and...

Concentrations Of Potassium In Plants

Figure 4.7c shows the K+ concentration in tissue water during the growing period for treatments with or without K fertilizer. There is an enormous difference in tissue water K+ concentration since the treatment without K has not received K fertilizer since 1852 (Rothamsted field experiments). Hence, potassium deficiency is clearly indicated by the tissue water K+ concentration. The increase in K+ concentration in the late stage is due to water loss.

Approaches In Research

Research is conducted, and will continue to be conducted, to ensure that soil tests correlate with use of nutrients by plants and that fertilizer recommendations are calibrated for crops (89). These correlations must be developed for individual crops and different land areas. Some research is directed toward development of systems for evaluation of soil and crop conditions through methods other than traditional soil and plant analysis. Much of the past and current research addresses chemical, physical, and biological properties of soils (90,91). Some researchers have studied the interaction of these quantitative aspects to determine soil quality and to develop a soil quality index that correlates with crop productivity and environmental and health goals (92). Soil quality has been defined to include productivity, sustainability, environmental quality, and effects on human nutrition (93). To quantify soil quality, specific soil indicators are measured and integrated to form a soil...

Concentrations of Nitrogen in Plants

Many attempts have been made to relate yields of crops to nutrient supply in media and to accumulation in plants. Deficiency of nitrogen or another nutrient is associated with suboptimum development of a plant, as reflected by the appearance of symptoms of deficiency, the suppression of yields, or to the response of plants after the accumulation of the deficient nutrient following its application as a fertilizer. Plant analysis (tissue testing) is used in the diagnosis of nutritional deficiency, sufficiency, or excess. Generally, the concentrations of nitrogen in plants reflect the supply of nitrogen in the root medium, and yields increase as internal concentration of nitrogen in plants increases. The use of information on internal concentrations of nitrogen in plants should not be directed toward forecasting of yields as much as it should be used in assessing how yields can be improved by fertilization.

Diagnosis Of Nitrogen Status In Plants 231 Symptoms of Deficiency and Excess

Abscise From The Plant

A shortage of nitrogen restricts the growth of all plant organs, roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits (including seeds). A nitrogen-deficient plant appears stunted because of the restricted growth of the vegetative organs. Nitrogen-deficient foliage is a pale color of light green or yellow (Figure 2.1). Loss of green color is uniform across the leaf blade. If a plant has been deficient throughout its life cycle, the entire plant is pale and stunted or spindly. If the deficiency develops during the growth cycle, the nitrogen will be mobilized from the lower leaves and translocated to young leaves causing the lower leaves to become pale colored and, in the case of severe deficiency, to become brown (firing) and abscise. Until the 1940s crops received little nitrogen fertilizer (a typical application of N was 2 or 3 kg ha), and when the light green color and firing appeared, farmers assumed that the soil was droughty (47). Sometimes under conditions of sufficiency of nitrogen,...

Ammonium Phosphates 1021 N

Ammonium phosphates are important phosphorus-containing fertilizers because of their high concentrations of phosphorus and water solubility. Diammonium phosphate (commonly 18 N, 46 P2O5) is a dry granular or crystalline material. It is a soil-acidifying fertilizer and is useful on calcareous soils. It should be incorporated into the soil. It is a common starter fertilizer and is a common component of greenhouse and household fertilizers. Monoammonium phosphate (commonly 11 N, 48 P2O5) has uses similar to those of diammonium phosphate. Ammonium polyphosphate (10 N, 34 P2O5) is marketed as a solution. Its use is similar to that of monoammonium phosphate and diammo-nium phosphate. Ammonium phosphates are made by reaction of ammonia with orthophosphoric acid (mono- and diammonium salts) or with superphosphoric (pyrophosphoric) acid (152).

Summary And Outlook

Today the trait changes that have been brought about by plant breeding (e.g., Figure 2) can be described at the genotype and phenotype levels. Even though the molecular and functional bases for most of the genetic changes are not fully understood genetic progress is still made by breeding programs (Figure 2). MAS strategies offer opportunities for accelerating the rates of genetic progress that can be achieved. Currently some of the early proposed applications of MAS are under empirical evaluation and others are being applied (e.g., Moreau et al. 2004a, Cahill and Schmidt 2004, Niebur et al. 2004, Podlich et al. 2004, Hammer et al. 2005, Crosbie et al. 2006). Beyond the theoretical considerations there are many issues that require detailed consideration when applying MAS in applied breeding. Given that mapping studies will identify only a component of the standing genetic variation for traits in a sample of the reference genotype-environment system at a point in time, theory and...

Conservation status

In Mexico, two species, the water opossum and the woolly opossum, are included in the list of species at risk as endangered. These two species are considered sensitive to habitat disruption and their populations have been severely decreased as a result of deforestation and water pollution by discharge of fertilizers and pesticides.

Let Those rass Clippings

Grass clippings make great fertilizer, according to Cyane Gresham, compost specialist at the Rodale Institute Experimental Farm in Kutztown, Pennsylvania. Cyane says that it's a crime to waste grass clippings by bagging them up for disposal with household trash because they're such a terrific organic source of nitrogen and other nutrients. Grass clippings should never leave your property. They are too valuable as a mulch and fertilizer for the lawn, gardens, and landscape,'' Cyane explains.

Ingredients and Supplies

Note Add more water and new weed material to the daim or buckets as you use the fertilizer and you'll have a continuous source of plant food. It's like sourdough starter, explains Neil's friend, Kathleen Chapman, also of Raymond, Mississippi. You have to keep it going by continuing to add fresh plants and more water. The sludge that remains in the bottom of the container contains microbes that keep the fertilizer cooking. Kathleen says that this weed tea keeps her flower and herb gardens lush and green all season long.

Teed four harden with Cover Crops

Fifth generation farmer Dean Berden of Snover, Michigan, uses cover crops for fertilizer in his farm fields and his family vegetable garden. Dean produces dry beans, soybeans, wheat, oats, and organically certified cover crop seeds on his 500-acre Thistle Down Farms without using any commercial fertilizer supplements.

Fantastic tliar teeding formula

Foliar (or leaf) feeding is the most efficient way to fertilize, says John Dromgoole, owner of Garden-Ville nursery in Austin, Texas, and host of the Gardening Naturally radio program. When you apply fertilizer to the soil, the roots may take up as little as 10 percent of the nutrients, he explains, but when fertilizer is applied to the leaves, 90 percent of the material is absorbed. John regularly foliar-feeds all of the nursery stock at Garden-Ville, as well as the plants in his home landscape. His formula includes fish emulsion for nitrogen and seaweed for trace minerals, growth stimulants, and plant hormones. One of John's secret ingredients is blackstrap molasses, which contains iron and sulfur as well as simple sugars that nourish the plants.

Stabilisation of atm C02 at 550ppmv

In particular, we are unclear about the potentially beneficial effects of elevated CO2 on crop growth. Current estimates are based upon field experiments that have assumed near-optimal applications of fertilizer, pesticide and water, and it is possible that the actual 'fertilizing' effect of higher levels of CO2 is less than we expect. Moreover, we have not taken into account effects of altered climate on pests and weeds, which are likely to vary greatly from one environment to another.

Summary of Results of the MEPI Study

The Measuring Environmental Performance of Industry (MEPI) study collected environmental and financial data for 270 European companies and 430 production sites in six industrial sectors (electricity, pulp and paper, fertilizers, Analysis confirmed that environmental performance can be adequately reflected by a subset of the variables incorporated in the database. These results have important implications for the statistical analysis carried out. Construction of performance indicators, benchmarking and analysis of explanatory factors was based on those variables that appeared to be both sufficiently available within the dataset and were found to be significantly influential to the environmental performance. The analyses that we were able to perform depended on the sector analysed. Due to lack of data, no further analysis of the computer manufacturing sector was possible. In some of the sectors (pulp and paper, fertilizer) with more heterogeneous processes and products, analysis needed...

Initial Estimations for Climate Scenarios from Low Resolution Climate Models

Singh and L. Hunt, A User's Guide to CERES- Wheat - V2.10, Muscle Shoals International Fertilizer Development Center, 1989. 17 J.T. Ritchie, U. Singh, D. Godwin and L. Hunt, A User's Guide to CER.ES-Maize-V2.10, Muscle Shoals International Fertilizer Development Center, 1989. 18 D. Godwin, U. Singh, J. T. Ritchie and E. C. Alocilja, A User's Guide to CERES-Rice, Muscle Shoals International Fertilizer Development Center, 1993. The IBSNAT models were selected for this study because they have been validated over a wide range of environments20 and are not specific to any particular location or soil type. They are thus suitable for use in large-area studies in which crop growing conditions differ greatly. The validation of the crop models over different environments also improves the ability to estimate effects of changes in climate. Furthermore, because management practices, such as the choice of varieties, planting date, fertilizer application and...

Plant Cultivation Harvesting and Collecting

The process begins simply with the growing plant itself. This happens at random out in the fields or by cultivation. Although ''wild crafting'' is still a method used for some species, cultivated plants can be harvested much more easily. Wild crafting additionally leaves the risk of collecting the wrong species and getting impure plant material for extraction. By using analytical methods, one is able to identify the purity of the herb. To minimize contamination, the collectors should be well educated about their work. One of the major factors that must always be considered is the concern of overharvesting. The major concerns of farmers as well as commercial customers is the continued availability of raw material. Proper cultivation of plants in a controlled environment offers greater security that plant species can be made available. Today many plants are also available that are ''organically grown.'' Because no pesticides, chemical fertilizers, or chemical growing aids are used,...

Pelecaniformes And People

To enjoy the company of humans and follow their fishing ships and even rest on them. Farmers gather the droppings from seabird nesting sites to make fertilizers for crops. In the Far East, cormorants are trained to catch fish for their owners, and some peoples on South Pacific islands still use the long tail feathers of tropicbirds for decorating their clothing.

Composting for Vegetable Gardens

Perhaps you've been wondering why so many vegetable gardeners have compost piles. The short answer is that it's downright sensible. Compost is a bountiful and free source of organic matter, which vegetables adore and consume like crazy. To have it always handy when you need it is unbeatable. Compost is a pile of organic waste that breaks down into rich, dark, crumbly material that jubilant gardeners call black gold It's an excellent way to add humus to your garden, and it also acts as a natural, slow-release fertilizer. You also get to feel virtuous and efficient because you're not sending perfectly useful materials away with the household garbage.

When to feed your garden

Whether you're using store-bought or natural fertilizer, such as compost or manure, most plants like to be fertilized at planting time, just to get off to a good start. Thereafter, you may fertilize again on a monthly basis. Reduce or stop when fall's cooler weather arrives. Fertilizer inspires fresh new growth, and you don't want that then fall is a time for plants to slow down and approach dormancy, and cold weather can damage new growth. (You should, however, feed the lawn in autumn to stimulate root growth feeding grass in If you're using store-bought or chemical fertilizer, read the label to figure out how to deliver the fertilizer and how much to use. Some fertilizers work best if you dig them right into the soil others are better delivered in dilute form when you water. The label can also tell you how much to use per square foot of garden area and how often to apply. For bagged organic fertilizer, read the label otherwise, do some research on your own. More is not better...

Diagnosis Of Boron Status In Plants

Boron does not accumulate uniformly in leaves, but typically concentrates in leaf tips of monocotyledons and leaf margins of dicotyledons, where boron toxicity symptoms first appear. In fact although leaf tips may represent only a small proportion of the shoot dry matter, they can contain sufficient boron to substantially influence total leaf and shoot boron concentrations. To overcome this problem, Nable et al. (62) recommended the use of grain in barley for monitoring toxic levels of boron accumulation. The main difficulty in using cereal grain for determining boron levels is the small differences in the grain boron concentration as obtained in response to boron fertilization (63). Low risk of boron toxicity to rice in an oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)-rice (Oryza sativa L.) rotation was attributed to the relatively high boron removal in harvested seed, grain, and stubble, and the loss of fertilizer boron to leaching (64). Boron toxicity symptoms in zinc-deficient citrus (Citrus...

Susceptibility to Genomic Injury Genomic Instability

Cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS result from the accumulation of genomic damage, failure to repair such damage, or both. Although the etiology of most cases of MDS is unknown, exposure to genotoxic agents such as benzene, radiation, or prior treatment with chemother-apeutic agents is known to increase the risk of developing MDS (Nisse et al. 2001). Other environmental agents that may increase the risk include smoking, heavy metals, pesticides, fertilizers, petroleum products, and organic chemicals (Garfinkel and Boffetta 1990 Rigolin et al. 1998 West et al. 1995) (see Chapter 3).

Fertilizing your containerplants

Potted plants grown for their flowers or fruit especially benefit from fertilizer, because producing these things requires so much energy. Fertilizer leaches out or washes away with every watering, so you need to keep it up. Also, the limited amount of soil in a pot limits the amount of nutrients it can hoard and supply to the plants. Unless you're growing something fussy or offbeat, or something with special requirements, a general all-purpose garden fertilizer is perfectly fine for almost all potted plants. It comes in different forms, so experiment to discover what you and your plants prefer. Options include liquid fertilizers, dry or granular fertilizers, fertilizer beads, and fertilizer sticks. Whatever you decide, always follow the label directions on how and when to apply to the letter like aspirin, more is not better

A sea of green Controlling algae in troubled waters

Excessive nutrients The source may be runoff from your adjacent garden or lawn, or perhaps you're overfertilizing your water garden plants. Cut back on the fertilizer and or create diversion and drainage channels to keep runoff away. Keep yellowing and fading plant parts trimmed off (don't let them break down in the water). Also, make sure leaves and other lawn debris doesn't end up in the water.

Anhydrous Ammonia 82 N

Anhydrous ammonia is the most-used nitrogen-containing fertilizer for direct application to land in the United States (152). Worldwide, consumption of anhydrous ammonia is ranked fourth or fifth among nitrogen fertilizers (Table 2.7). In agriculture, anhydrous gaseous ammonia is compressed into a liquid and is applied under high pressure with a special implement by injection at least 15 cm deep into a moist soil. The ammonia gas reacts with water to form ammonium ions, which can be held to clay or organic matter. If the ammonia is not injected deeply enough or soil is too wet or dry, ammonia can be lost by volatilization. Anhydrous ammonia is usually the cheapest source of nitrogen, but equipment and power requirements of the methods of application are specific and high.

Uper food for

Roses really respond to organic fertilizers, says Judy McKeon, chief horticulturist and rosarian for the Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. We fertilize all of our roses with this organic blend in early spring and give repeat-bloomers a second application in early summer, she says. They respond with fantastic foliage and flowers. Fertilizer

Fertilizing bulbs

A general-purpose fertilizer works fine for bulbs. A higher phosphorus content is often recommended simply because it inspires root growth as well as flower production. So go ahead and use the 5-10-5 or something close to this ratio. Some people debate over where to place the fertilizer. In the hole On the soil surface (top-dressing) The case for adding plant food to the planting hole is that it's right at the roots, where plants need it (some people are concerned that direct contact with fertilizer will burn a bulb or its roots, but not all bulbs are so fragile). The case for soil-surface feeding is that the nutrition can filter into the growing area more gradually. The standard application rate for fertilizer is a tablespoon or small handful per square foot, but read the label on the fertilizer package for exact directions. Always apply fertilizer to damp ground, and water it in afterwards if there's no rain so it penetrates the soil and gets to the root zone.

Plant Analysis

In all cases, care has to be taken to avoid contamination of tissue samples with sulfur from foliar fertilizers or sulfur-containing pesticides. Care is also needed when cleaning samples, because water used for washing may contain significant amounts of sulfate. Paper used for sample drying and storage contains distinct amounts of sulfate, originating from the manufacturing process. As sulfate bound in paper is more or less insoluble, the risk of contamination when washing plants is low, but adherent paper particles may significantly influence the results obtained.

Wiss Thard Tocktail

Did you go overboard on sowing Swiss chard Or maybe you're looking for a fast-growing fertilizer source to fill in some empty garden space You can solve your problems and satisfy your plants' hunger by serving them Swiss chard tea for a quick pick-me-up. Fantastic in salads, stir-fries or just steamed, Swiss chard is great for plants, too. A happy hour for sad-looking plants'' is how Dominique Inge, a self-described passionate gardener, characterizes her recipe. She uses it regularly on the plants in her organic gardens in Granbury, Texas.

Foliar Absorption

Tank mixing urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer (UAN 0.5 by weight) with ZnSO4 increased leaflet zinc concentration compared to using ZnSO4 alone in pecan. Zinc nitrate was more efficient than ZnSO4 in increasing leaflet concentration, especially if tank mixed with UAN (0.5 ). Zinc concentrations of spray solutions can be reduced by one eighth to one fourth of the current recommended rate as ZnSO4 at 86 g per 100L of water. Use of the lowest rate of Zn(NO3)2, 10.8 g per 100L of water + UAN, increased yield and income over the recommended rate of ZnSO4 (66). This paper plus earlier work that led to the formulation of Zn(NO3)2 + UAN was patented under the The inclusion of NH4NO3 and urea to either Zn(NO3)2 or ZnSO4 resulted in a significant increase in translocation of absorbed zinc. There was no significant difference in movement of absorbed zinc between ZnSO4 + NH4NO3 + urea and Zn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + urea. However, the total amount of zinc available to leaves treated with Zn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3...

Where to plant bulbs

Use a fertilizer that has a higher phosphorus number, such as a 5-10-5 fertilizer (see Chapter 4 for info on fertilizer grades). Phosphorus (the P in the N-P-K on fertilizer labels) is important for the root growth as well as flower production. Just sprinkle the fertilizer in the bottom of the hole and scratch it in so it mixes with the soil a bit. (For more on choosing and using fertilizer, see Fertilizing your bulbs, later in this chapter.) If the ground is bone dry, water a day or so before planting so the ground is damp but not muddy when you're planting the bulbs. If you want to wait to fertilize, you can scratch the fertilizer into the surface of the soil in the spring as the bulbs are growing.

Fertilizing trees

Whether to fertilize a tree is strictly your call. If you know your garden soil isn't very fertile or you want to pamper a new, young tree, you may fertilize monthly or even more often during the growing season. Check at the nursery or garden center for tree fertilizer and apply or dilute according to the label directions.

How much seed to use

As with calculating the amount of fertilizer to spread, you need to know the square footage of your lawn. (So spend a moment to figure that out you know, length x width, or the radius squared x pi. If you can't remember this elementary-school math, get a smart kid to help you bill it as a practical lesson By the way, if you know your yard size in acres, 1 acre equals 43,560 square feet.) Then consult the bag of seed to find out how much is recommended, or check out Table 10-3. Don't plan to overdo it excessive seed only makes a weaker lawn The seedlings are all fighting for limited soil space, nutrients, and light.

How to spread seed

207 Panne Toit

1 Hydroseeding This technique involves spraying the yard with a mixture of grass seed, water, fertilizer, and mulch. Most people hire someone to do the work for them. Hydroseeding is usually less expensive than sod but costs more than regular seeding. Many times, people lay biodegradable netting on steeply sloped areas before they're hydroseeded to prevent erosion. This technique is usually very successful as long as you keep the seeded area damp.

Much Ado about Mulch

Decays quickly, so you have to replenish it often if you use weed killers on your lawn or nitrogen-heavy fertilizer, it may adversely affect other parts of the garden can turn slimy if you apply more than an inch or so at a time if the grass went to seed before you cut it, the grass seeds can germinate in your garden beds (yikes )


Unless your soil is fabulously fertile, some supplemental fertilizer is very nice for your roses. It inspires robust growth and more flowers. Also, a well-nourished plant is healthier and is thus less likely to succumb to stress, disease, or insect attacks. Use an all-purpose garden fertilizer, because it has balanced amounts of N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and K (potassium). Fertilizers touted especially for roses such as Rose Food are fine but not mandatory. In spring, as the plant emerges from dormancy, you can water with a tablespoon of Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate) dissolved in a gallon of water to promote strong canes. Always water before applying fertilizer so the plant is plumped up and under no stress. Watering also helps deliver the food more evenly and more gradually. You can also water right after feeding your roses, to help move the nutrients into the root zone faster. Better still, water with a hose-end deep root fertilizer attachment. Foliar (leaf) feeding is another...

Zinc Tolerance

Foliar application of chelates is inefficient because of poor absorption of the large organic molecules through cuticles (32,33). Foliar ZnSO4 treatments are toxic to peach leaves (34) and to many other species, probably because sulfur accumulates on leaves and results in salt burn. A zinc nitrateammonium nitrate-urea fertilizer (NZNTM 15 N, 5 Zn Tessenderlo Kerley Group, Phoenix, AZ, U.S.A.) did not burn peach leaves. Apparently, NZN-treated peach leaves do not suffer from salt burn because the nitrate in NZN is readily absorbed in response to the need of leaves for nitrogen in protein synthesis thus not accumulating on the surface to cause leaf burn (34).

Soil Tests

A basic principle of soil testing is that an area can be sampled so that chemical analysis of the samples will assess the nutrient status of the entire sampled area. Methods of sampling may differ with the variability of the area being sampled and with the nutrients being tested. A larger number of samples may need to be taken from a nonuniform area than from a uniform area. Movement of nutrients into the soil, as with nitrate leaching downward, may cause the need for sampling of soil to be at a greater depth than with nutrients that do not move far from the site of application. Wide differences in test results across a field bring into question whether a single recommendation for fertilization can be made for the entire field (74,75). Fertilization of fields can increase the variability of nutrients of a field, and the assessment of the fertility level with respect to nutrients will become more difficult. Variations in patterns of applications of fertilizers, such as placement of...

Sulfur Fertilization

The optimum timing, dose, and sulfur form used depends on the specific sulfur demand of a crop and application technique. Under humid conditions, the sulfur dose should be split in such a way that sulfur fertilization in autumn is applied to satisfy the sulfur demand on light, sandy soils before winter and to promote the natural resistance against diseases. At the start of the main vegetative growth, sulfur should be applied together with nitrogen. With farmyard manure, on an average 0.07 kg sulfur is applied with each kg of nitrogen. In mineral fertilizers and secondary raw materials, sulfur is available usually as sulfate, elemental sulfur, and sulfite. Sulfate is taken up directly by plant roots, whereas sulfite and elemental sulfur need prior oxidation to sulfate, whereby the speed of transformation depends on the particle size and dimension of the thiobacillus population in the soil (Figure 7.19) (337,338).

Soil Analysis

Sources and sinks commonly included in a sulfur balance are inputs by depositions from atmosphere, fertilizers, plant residues, and mineralization, and outputs by losses due to leaching. A frequent problem when establishing such simple sulfur balances is that the budget does not correspond to the actual sulfur supply. The reason is that under temperate conditions it is the spatiotemporal variation of hydrological soil properties that controls the plant-available sulfate-S content. A more promising way to give a prognosis of the sulfur supply is a site-specific sulfur budget, which includes information about geomorphology, texture, climatic data, and crop type and characteristics of the local soil water regime (Figure 7.14).

Functions In Plants

Plants deficient in calcium typically have upper parts of the shoot that are yellow-green and lower parts that are dark green (36) (Figure 5.3). Given the abundance of calcium in soil, such a condition is unusual, although it can arise from incorrect formulation of fertilizers or nutrient solutions.

Indicator Plants

The use of animal manures as fertilizers can increase water pollution problems due to runoff of soluble phosphorus. Several aluminum-containing compounds have been shown to reduce phosphate runoff if applied to manure. Applications of aluminum sulfate or aluminum chloride to swine manure reduced soluble phosphate in runoff by 84 , presumably by forming insoluble phosphate complexes (347). In a large scale, on-farm trial, aluminum sulfate was applied over a 16-month period to litter in 97 poultry houses on the Delmarva Peninsula. Compared to litter from untreated houses, treated litter had decreased soluble phosphates, a lower pH, and higher total nitrogen and sulfur concentrations, thereby increasing its value as a fertilizer (348). Zeolite and aluminum sulfate were evaluated in amending slurries of dairy manure (349). Aluminum sulfate eliminated soluble phosphorus, and zeolite reduced it by over half. Both aluminum compounds reduced ammonia emissions by 50 , presumably by reducing...

Piant Help from lelp

Looking for the perfect all-purpose food for your perennials, herbs, shrubs, roses, and fruit trees Phil Boise of Goleta, California, has concocted an organic mix that keeps his plants healthy and productive all year. Phil and his wife, Ellen McLaughlin, sell organically grown plants, organic pest controls, fertilizers, and seeds at Island Seed and Feed in Goleta.


Find out what your garden needs before you apply fertilizer. Send a soil sample to a testing lab and ask them (or organic recommendations. (See Organic Soil Testing on page 57 for labs that offer this service.) 3. Belore planting in spring, spread the fertilizer over the garden area the amount Store fertilizer in a dry place that's out of the sun, like a storage shed or garage. Keep it in a locked cabinet or other secure place so that it's out of reach of children and pets. you'll need to use depends on your soil test. (Wear gloves, goggles, and a respirator when you work.) Hoe or rake the fertilizer into the top 4 to 6 inches of soil. Yield The equivalent of 25 pounds of 5-10-10 commercial organic fertilizer

Amino Acids

Variability for reported amino acid composition in tomato fruit is likely due to both genotypic differences and plant nutrition (Davies 1966a Freeman and Woodbridge 1960). Interest in amino acid content of tomato has generally focused upon their influence on fruit flavor. Attempts to influence fruit amino acid composition have been limited to studies evaluating the effect of different fertilizer regimes (Carangal et al. 1954 Davies 1964). Glutamic, a-aminobutyric, glutamine, and aspartic account for approximately 80 of the total free amino acids (Freeman and Woodbridge 1960). Free lysine and methionine constitute 20 to 25 and 12 to 18 of total lysine and methionine, respectively (Friedman 2002). The essential amino acid content of tomato is considered to be of good quality, being similar to soy protein (Friedman and Brandon 2001). Amino acid levels in fruit of wild tomato species were generally lower in comparison to the cultivated form (Schauer et al.

Fishing With Birds

Big flocks of cormorants are considered pests by some people because the birds can be messy and they eat fish. In South America, farmers gather the cormorants' droppings for fertilizer. In Japan and China, some people use cormorants to help them fish. Bird watchers sometimes travel long distances to see rare cormorants and anhingas.


Nickel is the latest element to be classified as essential for plant growth in both laboratory and field conditions and an absolute requirement for nickel fertilizer under field conditions in perennial species growing in the southeast of the United States has now been established. Nickel clearly has a significant effect on the productivity of field-grown, nitrogen-fixing plants, those in which ureides are a significant form of nitrogen and those utilizing urea as a primary nitrogen source. The symptoms of nickel deficiency in barley, wheat, and oats observed by Brown et al. (1) and Wood et al. (2) are consistent with the observations made in nickel-deficient animals and are indicative of a role of nickel in nitrogen metabolism that cannot be easily explained through an exclusive role of nickel in urease. This finding in combination with the diverse known functions of nickel in bacteria suggests that nickel may indeed play a role in many, yet undiscovered processes in plants.

Reference Values

Substantial increases in the serum selenium concentration was observed in Finland, when selenium-enriched fertilizers were taken to wide use to counteract the low selenium intake caused by the low selenium content, high pH, and high iron content of the soil (Aro et al, 1995).


Attention has recently been directed to the increased metal content of crops from fields fertilized with metal-rich sewage sludge. The agricultural use of sewage sludge has, therefore, been regulated in some countries. In this context, it should also be noted that phosphate fertilizers, widely used in agriculture, might also contain some undesirable metals (e.g., cadmium). Furthermore, the acidification of soils by various processes including certain fertilizers as well as acid rain can increase the uptake of certain metals (e.g., cadmium) in crops (Nordberg et al., 1985a). A metal discharged into the environment may be transformed into other chemical species by processes in the environment. The most well-known example is mercury as discussed previously and in Chapter 33.