Examination Findings

A detailed history of the onset of symptoms—traumatic event or insidious onset of symptoms—and the level of athletic participation before and after injury should be elicited from the athlete. An assessment of possible referred hip pain from low back pain or abdominal or gynecologic disorders should also be considered. Risk factors for avascular necrosis (AVN) and stress fractures should be obtained in the history as well. Mechanical symptoms of the hip related to a single traumatic event or from repetitive trauma from athletic activity may be exacerbated by athletic participation and daily activities. Physical findings of a labral tear may include an abnormal gait with shortened stance phase; reproducible groin pain elicited with forced flexion/adduction and internal rotation (impingement test) [9] or flexion/abduction and external rotation test, and limitations of terminal motion of the hip. Plain radiographs that include

Fig. 14. Synovitis with capsular laxity after traumatic posterior hip dislocation.

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