Female Figures Ebook
Figure drawings are projective diagnostic techniques in which an individual is instructed to draw a person, an object, or a situation so that cognitive, interpersonal, or psychological functioning can be assessed. A projective test is one in which a test taker responds to or provides ambiguous, abstract, or unstructured stimuli, often in the form of pictures or drawings. While other projective tests, such as the Rorschach Technique and Thematic Apperception Test, ask the test taker to interpret existing pictures, figure drawing tests require the test taker to create the pictures themselves. In most cases, figure drawing tests are given to children. This is because it is a simple, manageable task that children can relate to and enjoy. Some figure drawing tests are primarily measures of cognitive abilities or cognitive development. In these tests, there is a consideration of how well a child draws and the content of a child's drawing. In some tests, the child's self-image is considered...
While the encyclopedia attempts to minimize scientific jargon, readers will encounter numerous technical terms related to anatomy and physiology throughout the volume. To assist readers in placing physiological terms in their proper context, we have created a number of detailed anatomical drawings that are found within the particular taxonomic chapters to which they relate. Readers are urged to make heavy use of these drawings. In addition, many anatomical terms are defined in the Glossary at the back of the book.
It is popularly believed that the nuclear family, consisting of mother, father, and children, is the most psychologically healthy living arrangement for children. The basis for this belief is the assumption that children need both adult male and female figures from whom they can learn sex-appropriate behavior and after whom they can pattern their interests and activities. For this reason, it is maintained, single-parent families not only place an extra burden on the parent but also create identity problems for the child. It can be argued, however, that a home situation in which the parents do not get along has a greater potential for psychologically damaging the child than a one-parent home resulting from separation or divorce. Furthermore, in most instances the children of single parents are closer to that parent than children in two-parent households are to either of their parents.
In virtually all of the projective tests, features of impulse can readily be determined. For example, in the human figure drawings and other projective drawings, slapdash gestalts, disorganized line quality, and productions indicative of a striking lack of reflection or consideration are obvious features of a specific syndrome consisting of impulse elements, an action orientation, probability of low frustration tolerance, and a poorly organized control system representative of a low level of maturity. The Rorschach may provide additional samples of such features for example, the presence of a high animal movement content would support a fundamentally immature action orientation. A color-dominated protocol in which form controls are arbitrary at best can reveal the profound impact and preeminence of impulses in the life of the patient.
On the test protocol, the psychologist may note that stories typically are construed with magical solutions to problems involving interpersonal activities. On the figure drawings, cosmetic features will reveal a narcissistic orientation. The absence of eye detail along with the presence of a smile may appear, reflecting denial as a major defense mechanism. Denial nourishes the minimal use of evaluative capacities in the histrionic personality disorder. In addition, the psychologist can detect the person's inability to complete a task. On the inkblots, there may be excessive or arbitrary use of color reflecting emotional lability and emotion-driven responding. In addition, characteristics that may also appear include quick reaction times and an absence of concern with the logic of detail.
On the test protocol, passive-aggressive responses can be detected immediately by an unnecessary delay of responses that reflects a withholding trait. The use of obsessional ambivalence also frequently reflects passive-aggressive manipulation. Figure drawings may be replete with overtly or subtly hostile features in the treatment of fingers and teeth. However, spontaneous remarks by the subject paradoxically can indicate a benign motivation. Projective stories show power imbalance and yet create solutions that thwart authority. The cardinal finding in this disorder is the quality of intentional inefficiency that covertly conveys hostility and induces frustration in others.
The significant differences among various ethnic and cultural groups in what is considered normal or typical behavior. Cultural factors play a critical role in the expression of psychopathology unless this context is understood, it is not possible to make an accurate assessment of the patient. The instructor should introduce examples of variations in test performance from members of different cultural groups. For example, figure drawings obtained from children in different cultures are shown to students (Dennis, 1966). In some groups the drawings look frighteningly like those produced by retarded or by severely emotionally disturbed children.
It is important to remember that MCOs do not dictate our ethical obligations, but the interests of our clients do. It is the ethical psychologist's responsibility to persistently request compensation for assessment that can best serve the treatment needs of the client. However, even if psychologists are denied reimbursement, it does not mean they should not do assessments when they are indicated. Therefore, options for meeting both financial needs of the clinician and health care needs of the client should be considered. One solution may be the integration of assessment into the therapy process. Techniques such as the Early Memories Procedure, sentence completion tasks, brief questionnaires, and figure drawings may be incorporated into the therapy without requiring a great deal of additional contact or scoring time. Other possibilities include doing the assessment as the clinician sees fit and making financial arrangements with the client or doing a condensed battery. Maruish, in his...
An assumption that is frequently made without our even being aware that we are making the assumption is that clinical and counseling psychologists are more accurate than psychology graduate students. However, with few exceptions, this assumption has not been supported. In empirical studies, psychologists and other types of mental health professionals have rarely been more accurate than graduate students, regardless of the type of information provided to clinicians. This has been true when judgments have been made on the basis of interviews (Anthony, 1968 Grigg, 1958 Schinka & Sines, 1974), case history information (Oskamp, 1965 Soskin, 1954), behavioral observations (Garner & Smith, 1976 E. Walker & Lewine, 1990), recordings of psychotherapy sessions (Brenner & Howard, 1976), MMPI protocols (Chandler, 1970 Danet, 1965 Goldberg, 1965, 1968 Graham, 1967, 1971 Oskamp, 1962 Walters et al., 1988 Whitehead, 1985), human figure drawing protocols (Levenberg, 1975 Schaeffer, 1964 Stricker,...
Groth-Marnat, G., & Roberts, L. (1998). Human Figure Drawings and House Tree Person drawings as indicators of self-esteem A quantitative approach. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54, 219-222. Hiler, E. W., & Nesvig, D. (1965). An evaluation of criteria used by clinicians to infer pathology from figure drawings. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 29, 520-529. Kahill, S. (1984). Human figure drawing in adults An update of the empirical evidence, 1967-1982. Canadian Psychology, 25, 269292. Motta, R. W., Little, S. G., & Tobin, M. I. (1993). The use and abuse of human figure drawings. School Psychology Quarterly, 8, 162169. Schmidt, L. D., & McGowan, J. F. (1959). The differentiation of human figure drawings. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 23, 129-133. Stricker, G. (1967). Actuarial, naive clinical, and sophisticated clinical prediction of pathology from figure drawings. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31, 492-494. Swensen, C. H. (1957). Empirical evaluations of human figure drawings....
Other suggestions include asking patients to comment on their responses or asking them to amplify these responses, such as amplifying various aspects of their figure drawings and Bender Gestalt productions, their Rorschach and TAT response, and the critical items on self-report measures. These amplifications of test responses reduce interpretive errors by providing clarification of responses.
In the test protocol, projective stories may be characterized by excessive dependency features, magical solutions to problems that avoid active application of any personal resources in an assertive or realistic manner, and reliance on others for implementation of activities leading to accomplishment of goals. Figure drawings may be characterized by childlike representations. Although the inkblots may generate an average number of responses, they may frequently lack an appreciable focus on significant detail. Rather, percepts will center on simple, whole, and easily formed conventional responses. The frequency of animal contents may be high and regressive circles may appear in graphic material consistent with the individual's immature approach.
In relation to this localized and generally mild type of neurological impairment, the psychologist can gather response samples throughout the test protocol that suggest minimal brain involvement as the cause of an array of imperfect responses. With graphic material, for example, such imperfections include difficulties with closure, line instability, collision features, pressured line quality, difficulty in maintaining symmetry, or self-doubts expressed by frequent questioning of the examiner about whether designs were copied well. In response to the inkblots, questionable form responses may appear, and arbitrary use of color and poor color integration also may be seen. Impulse features in behavior as well as in protocol responses will be broadly represented. On the figure drawing, the subject's productions may be primitive and childlike. On the intelligence test, highly scattered results are seen. Some subtests remain intact and others will reflect...
On the test protocol, percepts may be interesting and varied but all performance tests will be impaired. Although few responses may be offered on the Rorschach, for example, some of them may reflect originality, high intelligence, and creativity. In contrast, on figure drawings, stick figures may be produced and on the intelligence test, performance scores can be significantly constricted.
Tests typically included in many test batteries include the WAIS-III, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the MMPI-2, the PAI, the Bender Gestalt, a sentence completion test, figure drawings, the Rorschach, the TAT, a variety of self-report depression and anxiety measures, and early memories. However, instructors might add or delete tests depending upon their interests and the students' interests. Although this is much more than a full battery, these tests are included to give students wide exposure to many instruments.
In response to inkblots, the patient in crisis may reveal idiosyncratic contents, such as animals digesting each other, or other responses that reflect direct intrusions of primary process ideation. On the Thematic Apperception Test, indications of poor frustration tolerance may appear, and the stories may be characterized by primitive needs for protection along with fears of annihilation. In figure drawings and other graphic material, bodily integrity may be severely compromised, and bizarre transparencies or inappropriate juxtapositions of body parts may be apparent.
On the test protocol, the psychologist may find that a cogent data profile revolves around exhibitionism. Responses reflecting compensatory needs, such as grandiosity, may appear. These attitudes can be observed in the content analysis of the inkblots and projective stories. Similarly, figure drawings may be expansive, and they most likely involve some display of grandiosity and aggrandizement.
The test protocol contents may reflect rigid and oppositional tendencies and interpersonal relations characterized by hostility and power themes. In addition, the figure drawings may display a rigid line quality, a suspicious expression in the eyes, and the occurrence of drawings in profile. An abundance of space responses on the inkblots, as in the reversal of figure and ground, frequently points to an oppositional attitude. A focus on inanimate movement responses can reflect a paranoid sense of power in the external environment and may also characterize responses to the inkblots. Finally, a lack of use of varied determinants and a corresponding excessive focus on the use of form as the major and, perhaps, only determinant may be characteristic. All these findings can occur in a context that is devoid of psychotic indicators.
On the test protocol, the psychologist will frequently discover responses characterizing the schizoid disorder that involve minimal interpersonal or human contents. An absence of color responses and limited use of a range of determinants, along with an emphasis on form as the major determinant employed, are found on the inkblots, reflecting an intellectual rather than an emotional or empathic approach to experience. On figure drawings, stick figures are not uncommon. An absence of shaded line quality reflects attenuated tensions, although instruments of aggression may also appear.
In September 2001, traffic was blocked off during a block party, and in a joint effort residents painted a giant sunflower motif (the symbol of the neighborhood Figure 4) in the middle of the intersection that symbolizes the organization of the seeds of a mature sunflower. With the intention to incorporate educational opportunities in urban design, the natural geometry of the sunflower was used the pattern resembles two opposing spirals, and mathematically represents a Fibonacci series. Irrespective of size of the seed head the numbers of the two spirals are always a pair in the series 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, etc (the sum of the two previous numbers add up to the next number). For example in a small sunflower 34 spirals can be counted in one direction and 55 in the other direction, while in a bigger one there may be 89 spirals in one direction and 149 in the other. The sunflower mural spans 40 feet across and extends up onto the sidewalk with 12 foot long petals....