S

Saber-toothed blennies, 4:56, 5:342 Sabertooth fishes, 4:432 Sabertooth viperfishes, 4:421 Sablefishes, 5:179, 5:182, 5:183, 5:184,

5:186-187 Saccogaster melanomycter, 5:18 Saccopharyngidae, 4:271, 4:272 Saccopharyngiformes, 4:11, 4:271-276, 4:273 Saccopharyngoidei, 4:271 Saccopharynx spp., 4:271, 4:274, 4:275 Saccopharynx ampullaceus. See Gulper eels Saddleback gunnels, 5:312, 5:314, 5:316 Saeed, B., 5:67 Safina, C., 5:418 Sailfin dories. See Buckler dories Sailfin plunderfishes, 5:324, 5:325 Sailfin sandfishes, 5:335, 5:336, 5:338, 5:339 Sailfin sculpins, 5:185, 5:187-188 Sailfishes, 5:408, 5:410 Sailor fishes. See Sailfin sculpins St. Helena dragonets, 5:366-367 Saithes. See Pollocks

Salamanderfishes, 4:57, 4:390-393, 4:394,

4:396, 4:397-398 Salaria fluviatilis. See Freshwater blennies Salarias fasciatus. See Jeweled blennies Salinity, 4:37, 4:50, 4:52 Salmo alpinus. See Charrs

Salmo altivelis. See Ayu Salmo arcticus. See Arctic graylings Salmo clupeaformis. See Lake whitefishes Salmo fontinalis. See Brook trouts Salmo gorbuscha. See Pink salmons Salmo kisatch. See Coho salmons Salmo masou. See Cherry salmons Salmo mykiss. See Rainbow trouts Salmo mykiss aguabonita. See Golden trouts Salmo namaycush. See Lake trouts Salmo nerka. See Sockeye salmons Salmo pacificus. See Eulachons Salmo salar. See Atlantic salmons Salmo silus. See Greater argentines Salmo trutta. See Brown trouts Salmo tshawytscha. See Chinook salmons Salmon rainbowfishes, 5:67 Salmon sharks, 4:132, 4:133 Salmon trouts. See Cherry salmons; Lake trouts Salmonidae, 4:50, 4:52, 4:58, 4:405 Salmoniformes. See Salmons Salmons, 4:405-420, 4:406, 4:408-409 behavior, 4:63, 4:406-407 conservation, 4:407 distribution, 4:52, 4:58, 4:405, 4:406 evolution, 4:405 feeding ecology, 4:68, 4:407 habitats, 4:50, 4:405-406 humans and, 4:407 physical characteristics, 4:60, 4:405 reproduction, 4:35, 4:47, 4:407 species of, 4:410-419 taxonomy, 4:405 Saltwater fishes. See Marine fishes Salvelinus agassizi, 4:407 Salvelinus alpinus. See Charrs Salvelinus fontinalis. See Brook trouts Salvelinus namaycush. See Lake trouts Samaridae, 5:450

Samoan sand darts, 5:379, 5:385, 5:387 Sanaga pygmy herrings, 4:277 Sand cats. See Channel catfishes Sand dabs. See Windowpane flounders Sand darts. See Samoan sand darts Sand eels, 5:131, 5:133

See also Inshore sand lances; Sandfishes Sand gobies, 5:373-375 Sand lances, 5:331-335 Sand lizardfishes. See Clearfin lizardfishes Sand nests, cichlids and, 5:279

See also Reproduction Sand rollers, 5:7, 5:11, 5:12 Sand sharks, 4:7

Sand stargazers, 5:341-342, 5:344, 5:347-348 Sand tiger sharks, 4:11, 4:131-133, 4:134,

4:136, 4:140-141 Sandburrowers, 5:331-335 Sanddivers, 4:48, 4:70, 5:331-335, 5:334 Sandelia spp., 5:427, 5:428 Sandelia bainsii, 5:429 Sandelia capensis, 5:428 Sandfishes, 4:292, 4:293-294, 5:331-335 Sandperches, 4:48, 4:66, 5:255, 5:331,

5:331-335 Sanopus spp., 5:41, 5:42 Sanopus astrifer. See Whitespotted toadfishes Sanopus greenfieldorum. See Whitelined toadfishes

Sanopus reticulatus. See Reticulated toadfishes Sanopus splendidus. See Splendid coral toadfishes

Sardina pilchardus. See European pilchards Sardinas. See South American pilchards Sardines, 4:34, 4:75, 4:277 See also Atlantic herrings; Dagaa; European pilchards; South American pilchards Sardinops melanostictus. See Japanese pilchards Sardinops sagax. See South American pilchards Sargassumfishes, 4:62, 4:69, 5:50, 5:51, 5:52,

5:53-54 Sargocentron spp., 5:113 Sargocentron vexillarium. See Squirrelfishes Sargocentron xantherythrum. See Hawaiian squirrelfishes Sarotherodon spp., 5:279 Saugers, 5:198

Saurida gracilis. See Slender lizardfishes Sauries, 4:12, 5:79, 5:80, 5:81, 5:82, 5:84 Sawbellies. See Alewives Sawbelly herrings, 4:277 Sawbwa barbs, 4:298 Sawbwa resplendens. See Sawbwa barbs Sawfishes, 4:11, 4:167, 4:173-179, 4:186 Sawsharks, 4:11, 4:167-171, 4:169 Scads, 4:67

Scaled lings. See Bowfins

Scaleless dragonfishes, 4:425, 4:428-429

See also Physical characteristics Scalloped hammerhead sharks, 4:115 Scalyhead sculpins, 5:183 Scapanorhynchus lewisi, 4:131 Scaphirhynchus spp., 4:213 Scardinius erythrophthalmus. See Rudds Scaridae. See Parrotfishes Scarlet characins. See Cardinal tetras Scartichthys spp., 5:343 Scarus frenatus. See Bridled parrotfishes Scarus guacamaia. See Parrotfishes Scarus iseri. See Striped parrotfishes Scatophagidae. See Scats Scatophagus argus. See Spotted scats Scatophagus tetracanthus, 5:393 Scats, 5:391, 5:392-393 Scaturiginichthys vermeilipinnis, 5:70 Schilbeidae, 4:352 Schindleria praematura, 5:374 Schindleriidae, 5:373, 5:374 Schistura oedipus. See Cavefishes of Nam Lang Schistura sijuensis. See Siju blind cavefishes Schizothoracinae, 4:297, 4:298 Schizothorax prenanti, 4:306, 4:308, 4:318 Schools of fish, 4:63-64, 4:277-278

See also Behavior Schouteden's African squeaker catfishes, 4:354 Schreckstoff spp., 4:335 Schuettea spp., 5:237 Schultz, R. Jack, 5:93 Sciaenidae, 5:255, 5:258-263 Sciaenops ocellatus. See Red drums Sclerognathus cyprinella. See Bigmouth buffalos Scleropages spp., 4:233 Scleropages formosus, 4:232, 4:234 Scleropagesjardini, 4:232, 4:234 Scleropages leichardti. See Australian spotted barramundis Scoliodon laticaudus, 4:116 Scoloplacidae, 4:352 Scomber scombrus. See Atlantic mackerels

Scomberesocidae. See Sauries

Scomberesox saurus saurus. See Atlantic sauries

Scomberoides spp., 5:260

Scomberoides lysan. See Common carps

Scomberomorus cavalla. See King mackerels

Scomberomorus concolor. See Monterrey Spanish mackerels Scombridae, 4:68, 5:405 Scombroidei, 5:405-419, 5:408 behavior, 5:406 conservation status, 5:407 distribution, 5:406 evolution, 5:405 feeding ecology, 5:406 habitats, 5:406 humans and, 5:407 physical characteristics, 5:405-406 reproduction, 5:406 species of, 5:402-418 taxonomy, 5:405 Scopelarchidae. See Pearleyes Scopelengys tristis, 4:442 Scopeloberyx spp., 5:106 Scopeloberyx robustus. See Longjaw bigscales Scopelogadus spp., 5:106 Scopelus antarcticus. See Electrona antarctica Scopelus pterotus. See Skinnycheek lanternfishes Scophthalmidae, 5:450, 5:453 Scophthalmus aquosus. See Windowpane flounders

Scophthalmus maximus. See Turbot fishes Scorpaena guttata. See California scorpionfishes Scorpaena mystes. See Pacific spotted scorpionfishes Scorpaena plumieri. See Spotted scorpionfishes Scorpaenichthys spp., 5:183 Scorpaenichthys marmoratus. See Cabezons Scorpaenidae. See Scorpionfishes Scorpaeniformes, 5:157-194, 5:160, 5:167, 5:168, 5:184, 5:185 behavior, 5:158, 5:165, 5:181-182 conservation status, 5:159, 5:166, 5:183 distribution, 5:158, 5:164, 5:180 evolution, 5:157, 5:163-164, 5:179 feeding ecology, 5:158, 5:165, 5:182 habitats, 5:158, 5:164-165, 5:180-181 humans and, 5:159, 5:166, 5:183 physical characteristics, 5:157-158, 5:164, 5:180

reproduction, 5:158, 5:165-166, 5:182-183 species of, 5:161-162, 5:169-178, 5:186-193 taxonomy, 5:157, 5:163-164, 5:179 Scorpaenoidei, 5:163-178, 5:167, 5:168 behavior, 5:165 conservation status, 5:166 distribution, 5:164 evolution, 5:163-164 feeding ecology, 5:165 habitats, 5:164-165 humans and, 5:166 physical characteristics, 5:164 reproduction, 5:165-166 species of, 5:169-178 taxonomy, 5:163-164 Scorpaenoideorum prominens, 5:164 Scorpidinae, 5:241

Scrawled filefishes, 5:469, 5:472, 5:476, 5:478 Sculpins, 4:47, 4:68, 5:179-193, 5:185

See also California scorpionfishes Sculptured seamoths, 5:138, 5:144-145 Scyliorhinidae, 4:113 Scyliorhinus spp., 4:113 Scyliorhinus canicula. See Lesser spotted dogfishes

Scyliorhinus retifer. See Chain catsharks Scyllium retiferum. See Chain catsharks Scyllium ventriosum. See Swellsharks Scymnus brasiliensis. See Cookie-cutter sharks Scytalinidae. See Graveldivers Sea anemones, damselfishes and, 5:294-295 Sea Atlantic herrings. See Atlantic herrings Sea basses, 5:255-256, 5:255-263, 5:258-263 European, 4:31, 5:198 feeding ecology, 4:44, 4:68, 5:260-261 reproduction, 4:25, 4:29, 4:31, 4:46, 4:61, 5:261-262 Sea carps. See Seacarps Sea catfishes, 4:353, 4:354, 4:355, 4:357 Sea chubs, 4:67, 5:235-244, 5:239, 5:246, 5:249

Sea eels. See American congers Sea lampreys, 4:4, 4:7, 4:83-87, 4:89-90, 4:214

Sea mice. See Sargassumfishes

Sea salmons. See Atlantic salmons

Sea sticks. See Atlantic herrings

Sea sturgeons. See Atlantic sturgeons

Sea toads, 5:47

Sea trouts. See Brown trouts

5:131-136, 5:137, 5:139, 5:146 Seamoths, 5:131, 5:133, 5:135, 5:136 Sebastapistes cyanostigma, 4:42 Sebastes spp., 5:166 Sebastes fasciatus, 5:166 Sebastes paucispinis. See Bocaccios Sebastidae. See Rockfishes Sebastolobus spp., 5:166 Sebastolobus alascanus, 5:166 Secretary blennies, 4:4, 5:344, 5:346-347 Seehausen, O., 5:281 Semaprochilodus taeniurus. See Flagtail prochilodus Semelparous fishes, 4:47 Semicossyphus pulcher. See California sheepheads Sensory system, 4:21-22, 4:60, 4:68

See also Physical characteristics Serenoichthys spp., 4:209 Sergeant bakers, 4:434 Serranidae. See Sea basses Serraninae. See Sea basses Serranus spp., 4:30, 5:262 Serrasalminae, 4:339 Serrasalmus spp., 4:69 Serrivomeridae, 4:255 Setarches guentheri. See Deepwater scorpionfishes Setarchidae. See Midwater scorpionfishes Sevengill sharks, 4:143-149, 4:145 Sex changes cichlids, 5:279 hawkfishes, 5:240, 5:242

parrotfishes, 5:297 Percoidei, 5:242 wrasses, 5:297 Sex ratios, 4:45

Sexual dimorphism, 4:33, 4:45-46, 4:64 Shads, 4:277 Alabama, 4:278 American, 4:280, 4:281, 4:282 gizzard, 4:280, 4:284-285 Laotian, 4:278 threadfin, 4:277 Shallow habitats, 4:53-56 Shannon mudminnows. See Salamanderfishes Shark catfishes, 4:353 Shark-fin catfishes. See Iridescent shark-

catfishes Shark mullets, 5:61, 5:64-65 Shark-watching, 4:109 Sharks angelsharks, 4:11, 4:161-165, 4:163 attacks by, 4:116, 4:137-138 banded cat, 4:105 bullhead, 4:11, 4:97-103, 4:100 carpet, 4:105-112, 4:107 dogfish, 4:11, 4:151-158, 4:154 evolution, 4:10 feeding ecology, 4:69 as food, 4:75

ground, 4:11, 4:113-130, 4:117-118 mackerel, 4:11, 4:131-142, 4:134 nurse, 4:11, 4:105-112, 4:107, 4:108 physical characteristics, 4:18, 4:60 reproduction, 4:26, 4:34, 4:35 sawsharks, 4:11, 4:167-171, 4:169 sevengill, 4:143-149, 4:145 sixgill, 4:143-149, 4:145 taxonomy, 4:10-11 Sharksuckers, 4:69 Sharp-nose puffers, 4:70 Sharpies. See Channel catfishes Sharpnose sevengill sharks, 4:143, 4:144 Sharptooth catfishes, 4:355, 4:359-360 Sheatfishes, 4:353

See also European wels Sheepsheads, 4:17, 4:53, 5:94 Shepherd fishes. See Man-of-war fishes Shiner perches, 5:276 Shiro bekko, 4:299 Shoals, 4:63-64

Shore eels. See Common shore-eels Shore herrings. See Atlantic herrings Short-headed lampreys, 4:83, 4:84, 4:87, 4:88, 4:89

Short-nosed seahorses, 5:134 Short-nosed tripodfishes. See Triplespines Shortfin catfishes, 4:353 Shortfin makos, 4:132, 4:133, 4:134, 4:135, 4:138

Shortnose gars, 4:223, 4:226-227 Shortnose sturgeons, 4:215, 4:216, 4:217 Shrimp gobies, 4:64

Siamese fighting fishes, 5:430, 5:432-433 Siberian stone loaches, 4:325 Sicklefishes, 5:235-239, 5:241, 5:242 Sicyases spp., 5:355

Siganidae. See Rabbitfishes Siganus vulpinus. See Foxface rabbitfishes Signigobius biocellatus. See Twinspot gobies Siju blind cavefishes, 4:324, 4:328, 4:329 Sillaginidae. See Sillagos Sillagos, 5:255, 5:256, 5:258-263 Siluridae. See Sheatfishes Siluriformes. See Catfishes Silurus bicirrhis. See Glass catfishes Silurus electricus. See Electric catfishes Silurus fasciatus. See Tiger shovelnose catfishes Silurus gariepinus. See Sharptooth catfishes Silurus glanis. See European wels Silurus hemioliopterus. See Redtail catfishes Silurus lineatus. See Coral catfishes Silurus punctatus. See Channel catfishes Silver aruana. See Arawanas Silver barfishes. See Dorab wolf herrings Silver carps, 4:299-300, 4:303, 4:305, 4:320, 4:312-313

Silver catfishes. See Iridescent shark-catfishes

Silver cats. See Channel catfishes

Silver chubs. See Troutperches

Silver cyprinids. See Dagaa

Silver dollars, 4:339, 4:342, 4:344

Silver hakes, 5:32, 5:37-38

Silver hatchetfishes, 4:425, 4:426-427

See also River hatchetfishes Silver lampreys, 4:83, 4:87, 4:89, 4:90 Silver needlefishes, 5:79 Silver perches, 5:222 Silver pomfrets, 5:422

Silver prochilodus. See Flagtail prochilodus Silver salmons. See Coho salmons Silver tetras, 4:336

Silversides, 4:12, 4:35, 5:67-71, 5:68, 5:72, 5:73-76

Silvery John dories. See Buckler dories Silvery moonies. See Monos Simenchelys parasitica. See Snubnosed eels Simenchelys parasiticus. See Snubnosed eels Sinamiidae, 4:229 Sinarapans, 5:377

Singing fishes. See Plainfin midshipmen Singleslits, 5:355-357, 5:358, 5:359, 5:361

Singlespot frogfishes. See Big-eye frogfishes Sinoperca spp., 5:220 Sisoridae, 4:353

Six-stripe soapfishes. See Sixline soapfishes Sixgill sawsharks, 4:167, 4:168, 4:269,

4:170-17i Sixgill sharks, 4:143-149, 4:245 Sixgill stingrays, 4:190 Sixline soapfishes, 5:265, 5:267, 5:271 Skates, 4:173-181, 4:280, 4:187 behavior, 4:177 conservation, 4:178 distribution, 4:176 evolution, 4:10, 4:11, 4:173-174 feeding ecology, 4:177-178 habitats, 4:176-177 humans and, 4:178-179 physical characteristics, 4:60, 4:274-176, 4:275

reproduction, 4:27, 4:46, 4:278 species of, 4:187 taxonomy, 4:173-174 Skilfishes, 5:179, 5:182, 5:284, 5:287 Skinnycheek lanternfishes, 4:444-445 Skipjack tunas, 5:406, 5:408, 5:412, 5:423

Skipjack winter shads. See Gizzard shads Sleeper sharks, 4:11, 4:151 See also Greenland sharks Slender argentines, 4:392 Slender giant morays, 4:260, 4:266, 4:267 Slender grinners. See Slender lizardfishes Slender lizardfishes, 4:432, 4:435, 4:438-439 Slender snipe eels, 4:257, 4:259, 4:264, 4:267-268

Slender worm-eels. See Rusty spaghetti eels Slickheads, 4:390, 4:391, 4:392, 4:394, 4:395 Slime eels. See Atlantic hagfishes; Pacific hagfishes Slime glands, 4:77

See also Physical characteristics Slimeheads. See Orange roughies; Roughies Slimy loaches. See Coolie loaches Slingjaw wrasses, 4:27, 5:295 Slipmouths. See Ponyfishes Slipskin snailfishes, 5:284, 5:286, 5:192-193 Sloane's viperfishes. See Viperfishes Slobodyanyuk, S. Ya., 5:180 Smallmouth basses, 5:199 Smallscale yellowfins, 4:305, 4:329 Smalltooth sawfishes, 4:276, 4:280, 4:286 Smelt whitings. See Sillagos Smelts, 4:69, 4:389-393, 4:394, 4:401

See also Australian smelts Smith, J. B. L., 4:189

Smooth-breasted snakeheads. See Walking snakeheads Smooth trunkfishes, 5:470 Smoothtongues. See California smoothtongues Smyrna mokarran, 4:116 Snaggletooths, 4:423 Snailfishes, 5:179, 5:180-181, 5:183 Snake eels, 4:48

Snake mackerels, 4:68, 5:408, 5:409 Snake mudheads. See African mudfishes Snakehead murrels. See Striped snakeheads Snakeheads, 4:69, 5:437, 5:437-447, 5:438, 5:440, 5:442 behavior, 5:438 conservation status, 5:439 distribution, 5:437-438 evolution, 5:437 feeding ecology, 5:438-439 habitats, 5:438 humans and, 5:439 physical characteristics, 5:437, 5:438 reproduction, 5:438, 5:439 species of, 5:442-446 taxonomy, 5:437 Snappers, 4:48, 4:68, 5:255-263 , 5:264,

5:268, 5:269, 5:270 Snipefishes, 5:131, 5:133-135 Snooks, 5:219-225, 5:224 Snubnosed eels, 4:69, 4:259, 4:269 Soapfishes (Diploprionini), 5:255, 5:261, 5:262 Soapfishes (Epinephelini), 5:256 Soapfishes (Grammistini), 5:255, 5:259, 5:261, 5:262

Soapfishes (Serranidae), 4:68 Social behavior, 4:62-64

See also Behavior Social mimicry, 5:342

See also Behavior Sockeye salmons, 4:4, 4:405, 4:407, 4:409, 4:422, 4:414-415

Soft flounders. See Pacific sanddabs Soft sculpins, 5:285, 5:289, 5:193 Soldierfishes, 4:48, 4:67, 5:113, 5:224, 5:226, 5:227, 5:220-121

Solea solea. See Common soles Soleidae. See Sole (Soleidae) Solenostomidae. See Ghost pipefishes Solenostomus spp. See Ghost pipefishes Solenostomus cyanopterus, 5:133 Solenostomus paradoxus. See Ornate ghost pipefishes Soles (Achiridae), 5:453 Soles (fossil), 5:449

Solivomer spp., 4:442 Solnhofenamiinae, 4:229 Somniosidae. See Sleeper sharks Somniosus spp., 4:151

Somniosus microcephalus. See Greenland sharks Somniosus pacificus. See Pacific sleeper sharks Sonora clingfishes, 5:358, 5:360, 5:362 Sooty grunters, 5:223, 5:227, 5:232 Sorosichthys spp., 5:115 Soto, D., 5:99 Sound production, 4:61 South African Cape dories, 5:123 South American hillstream catfishes, 4:352 South American knifefishes, 4:369-377, 4:372 South American leaf-fishes. See Amazon leaffishes

South American lungfishes, 4:6, 4:57, 4:202,

4:203, 4:204, 4:205 South American pigfishes, 5:267, 5:170-272 South American pilchards, 4:279, 4:280, 4:286 Southeastern African lungfishes, 4:28, 4:201,

4:202, 4:203 Southern bluefin tunas, 5:407 Southern cavefishes, 5:6, 5:7, 5:9, 5:10 Southern cod-icefishes, 4:49, 5:321-329, 5:324

Southern graylings, 4:390 Southern minnows. See Galaxiids Southern pygmy perches, 5:224, 5:229-230 Southern sandfishes, 5:331-335 Southern smoothtongues. See California smoothtongues Southern stingrays, 4:26, 4:276, 4:179 Spadefishes, 4:69, 5:391, 5:392, 5:393 Spangled pike cichlids. See Millets Spanish mackerels, 5:406, 5:407 Sparidae. See Porgies

Sparisoma viride. See Stoplight parrotfishes Spawning, 4:46, 4:47, 4:61, 4:65, 4:66, 4:336

See also Reproduction Speckled basses. See Black crappies Speckled cats. See Bowfins; Channel catfishes Speckled pavons, 5:283, 5:284, 5:285 Speckled ragfishes. See Ragfishes Speckled sea trouts. See Kelp greenlings Speckled trouts. See Brook trouts Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni. See Alabama cavefishes Spermatogenesis, 4:32

See also Reproduction Sphaeramia nematoptera. See Pajama cardinalfishes Sphaerichthys spp., 5:427, 5:428, 5:433 Sphyraena barracuda. See Great barracudas Sphyraenidae, 4:48, 4:68, 4:115, 5:405

Sphyrna lewini. See Scalloped hammerhead sharks

Sphyrna mokarran. See Great hammerhead sharks

Sphyrna tiburo. See Bonnethead sharks Sphyrnidae, 4:27, 4:113 Spikefishes, 5:467-471, 5:473, 5:482-483 Spine-cheek anemonefishes, 5:294 Spined pygmy sharks, 4:151 Spinefoots. See Rabbitfishes Spinicapitichthys spp., 5:365 Spiny butterfly rays, 4:181, 4:183 Spiny devilfishes. See Bearded ghouls Spiny dogfishes. See Piked dogfishes Spiny dwarf catfishes, 4:352 Spiny eels, 5:151-156, 5:152 Spiny flounders, 5:449-450, 5:452 Spiny plunderfishes, 5:321, 5:322 Spinyfins, 5:113, 5:115 Splash tetras, 4:338, 4:340, 4:349-350 Splashing tetras. See Splash tetras Splendid coral toadfishes, 5:41, 5:42, 5:43,

5:44, 5:45-46 Splendid garden eels, 4:259, 4:263, 4:264-265 Splendid hawfishes, 5:238 Splendid perches, 5:255, 5:256, 5:258-263 Splitfin flashlightfishes, 5:113, 5:117, 5:118 Splitfins, 4:32, 4:57, 5:89, 5:92, 5:93 Splits. See Atlantic herrings Spookfishes. See Barreleyes Spoonbill cats. See American paddlefishes Spot-fin porcupinefishes, 5:472, 5:475, 5:477 Spots. See Channel catfishes Spotted algae eaters, 4:322, 4:326, 4:333 Spotted characins. See Splash tetras Spotted coral crouchers, 4:42, 5:168, 5:170, 5:171

Spotted eagle rays, 4:181, 4:184-185 Spotted flounders. See Windowpane flounders Spotted gars, 4:221, 4:222, 4:223, 4:225-226, 4:227

Spotted handfishes, 5:51

Spotted puffers. See Guinea fowl puffers

Spotted ragfishes. See Ragfishes

Spotted ratfishes, 4:91, 4:93, 4:94

Spotted sanddivers, 5:332

Spotted scats, 5:393, 5:395, 5:401-402

Spotted scorpionfishes, 5:164

Spotted sharpnose puffers. See Spotted tobies

Spotted snake eels. See Tiger snake eels

Spotted tinselfishes. See Tinselfishes

Spotted tobies, 5:472, 5:481, 5:482

Sprats, 4:277

Spraying characins. See Splash tetras Spring cavefishes, 5:7, 5:8, 5:9-10 Spring herrings. See Alewives; Atlantic herrings

Springer, V. G., 4:54, 4:191, 5:341 Spur-and-groove zones, 4:48 Spurdogs. See Piked dogfishes Squalea, 4:11, 4:143, 4:161, 4:167 Squalidae. See Dogfish sharks Squaliformes. See Dogfish sharks Squaliolus spp., 4:151 Squalus spp., 4:15, 4:151, 4:152 Squalus acanthias. See Piked dogfishes Squalus africanus. See Pajama catsharks Squalus carcharias. See White sharks Squalus cepedianus. See Broadnose sevengill sharks

Squalus cuvier. See Tiger sharks Squalus glauca. See Blue sharks Squalus griseus. See Bluntnose sixgill sharks Squalus longimanus. See Oceanic whitetip sharks

Squalus maximus. See Basking sharks Squalus microcephalus. See Greenland sharks Squalus nasus. See Porbeagles Squalus portus jacksoni. See Port Jackson sharks Squalus vulpinus. See Thresher sharks Squarehead catfishes, 4:350, 4:353, 4:356 Squaretails. See Brook trouts Squatina spp., 4:161 Squatina aculeata, 4:162 Squatina africana, 4:162 Squatina argentina, 4:162 Squatina australis, 4:161-162 Squatina californica. See Pacific angelsharks Squatina dumeril, 4:162 Squatina formosa, 4:162 Squatina guggenheim, 4:162 Squatina japonica, 4:162 Squatina nebulosa, 4:162 Squatina occulta, 4:162 Squatina oculata, 4:162 Squatina squatina, 4:162, 4:163, 4:164-165 Squatina tergocellata, 4:161, 4:162 Squatina tergocellatoides, 4:161, 4:162 Squatinidae, 4:161 Squatiniformes. See Angelsharks Squeakers, 4:352, 4:354 Squirrel hakes. See Red hakes Squirrelfishes, 4:31, 4:48, 4:67, 5:113-120, 5:117

St. Helena dragonets, 5:366-367 Staghorn sculpins, 5:183 Stargazers, 4:19, 4:48, 4:69, 5:331-335 Starksia spp., 5:343

Starksia lepicoelia. See Blackcheek blennies Starostin's loaches. See Kughitang blind loaches Starry moray eels, 4:3 Steatogenys elegans, 4:370 Steelheads. See Rainbow trouts Stegastes planifrons. See Threespot damselfishes Stegastes sanctaehelenae, 5:298 Stegastes sanctipauli, 5:298 Stegostoma fasciatum. See Zebra sharks Stegostomatidae. See Zebra sharks Steindachner, F. on Cynolebias bellottii, 5:90 on ragfishes, 5:351 on sailfin sandfishes, 5:339 Steindachneria spp. See Luminous hakes Steindachneria argentea. See Luminous hakes Steindachneriidae. See Luminous hakes Stensiƶ, Erik A., 4:209 Stephanoberycidae. See Pricklefishes Stephanoberyciformes, 5:105-111, 5:107 Stephanoberycoidea, 5:105, 5:106 Stephanoberyx monae. See Pricklefishes Sternarchorhynchus spp., 4:369-370 Sternarchorhynchus curvirostris, 4:372,

4:373-374 Sternarchorhynchus roseni. See Rosen knifefishes

Sternoptychidae. See Marine hatchetfishes Sternopygidae, 4:369, 4:370 Sternopygus spp., 4:370 Sternopygus astrabes, 4:369

Sternopygus macrurus. See Longtail knifefishes Stethacanthid sharks, 4:10 Stiassny, Melanie L. J., 5:83, 5:94 Stichaeidae. See Pricklebacks Stichaeinae, 5:309

Sticklebacks, 4:35, 5:131-136, 5:137, 5:140, 5:141-143

Stingrays, 4:57, 4:173-179, 4:181, 4:182-186, 4:188

distribution, 4:52, 4:176 evolution, 4:11, 4:173 feeding ecology, 4:68, 4:177-178 freshwater, 4:57, 4:173, 4:174, 4:176-177,

4:180, 4:184-186 physical characteristics, 4:174-176, 4:190 reproduction, 4:46, 4:178 Stings, by reef stonefishes, 5:177 Stizostedion canadense. See Saugers Stizostedion vitreum. See Walleyes Stokellia anisodon. See Stokell's smelts Stokell's smelts, 4:391 Stomatorhinus spp., 4:233 Stomiidae, 4:421, 4:423 Stomiiformes, 4:421-430, 4:425 Stone loaches, 4:322, 4:325-326 Stonefishes, 4:15, 4:48, 5:49, 5:163, 5:164, 5:165

See also Reef stonefishes Stonerollers, 4:300, 4:301, 4:303, 4:307-308 Stoplight parrotfishes, 5:300, 5:306-307 Stout beardfishes, 5:3 Stout blacksmelts, 4:393 Stratification, water, 4:38-39 Strawberry basses. See Black crappies Stream catfishes, 4:353 Stream habitats, 4:39-40, 4:62

See also Habitats Striped African darters, 4:340, 4:342, 4:347 Striped anostomus. See Striped headstanders Striped basses, 4:49, 4:68

See also Striped sea basses Striped boarfishes, 5:245, 5:251-252 Striped bristletooths, 5:394, 5:398-399 Striped catsharks. See Pajama catsharks Striped danios. See Zebrafishes Striped eel-catfishes. See Coral catfishes Striped foureyed fishes. See Largescale foureyes

Striped hardyheads. See Eendracht land silversides Striped headstanders, 4:340, 4:342-343 Striped mullets. See Flathead mullets Striped parrotfishes, 5:300, 5:306 Striped poison-fang blennies, 5:344, 5:345-346

Striped sea basses, 5:196, 5:198, 5:201, 5:203, 5:206

Striped sea robins, 5:167, 5:177-178 Striped silversides. See Eendracht land silversides

Striped snakeheads, 5:438, 5:441, 5:443,

5:445-446 Stripedfin ronquils, 5:311, 5:312 Striper basses. See Striped sea basses Stromateidae. See Butterfishes (Stromateidae) Stromateoidei, 5:421-426, 5:423 Strongylura exilis. See Californian needlefishes Strophidon sathete. See Slender giant morays Sturgeons, 4:4, 4:11, 4:18, 4:35, 4:58, 4:75, 4:213-219, 4:216

Sturmbauer, C., 5:276 Stylephoridae, 4:447, 4:448 Stylephorus spp., 4:447, 4:448 Stylephorus chordatus, 4:449 Subtidal habitats, 4:47

See also Habitats Sucker catfishes, 4:353 Sucker loaches. See Algae eaters Suckermouth armored catfishes, 4:352, 4:353 Suckers, 4:321, 4:522 Suggrundus meerdervoortii, 5:158 Sulawesi rainbows, 4:57, 5:67, 5:68 Sumatra barbs. See Tiger barbs Summer flounders, 5:452, 5:454, 5:456, 5:458

Summer herrings. See Atlantic herrings Sundasalangidae, 4:57

Sunfishes, 4:15, 4:57, 4:67, 4:68, 5:195-199, 5:196, 5:200, 5:201, 5:202-205 See also Molas Suprabranchial chamber, snakeheads, 5:437, 5:458

Surf sardines. See Flowers of the wave Surf silversides, 5:67, 5:68 Surf smelts, 4:392

5:594, 5:396-400 Susquehanna shads. See American shads Sutchi catfishes. See Iridescent shark-catfish Swai. See Iridescent shark-catfishes Swallowers, 4:271-276, 4:275 Swamp eels, 5:151-156, 5:155 Swamp galaxias, 4:391 Swampfishes, 5:5, 5:7, 5:9 Swan galaxias, 4:391 Sweepers, 4:48, 4:68 Sweetfishes. See Ayu Sweetlips, 5:255

See also Haemulidae Swellsharks, 4:118, 4:125-126 Swim bladders, 4:6, 4:24, 4:24 Swissguard basslets, 5:255, 5:256, 5:259,

5:261, 5:262 Swordfishes, 4:4, 4:69, 5:405, 5:407, 5:408,

5:416, 5:417-418 Swordtails. See Green swordtails Symbiotic behavior, 4:64, 4:69

See also Behavior Symphurus spp. See Tonguefishes Symphurus atricaudus. See California tonguefishes Symphysodon spp., 5:279 Symphysodon aequifasciata. See Blue discus Synanceia spp., 4:15

Synanceia verrucosa. See Reef stonefishes Synanceiidae. See Stonefishes Synaphobranchidae, 4:255 Synbranchidae, 5:151, 5:152 Synbranchiformes, 5:151-156, 5:155 Synbranchoidei, 5:151

Synbranchus marmoratus. See Marbled swamp eels

Synchiropus spp., 5:365, 5:366 Synchiropus splendidus. See Mandarinfishes Synchirus gilli. See Manacled sculpins Syncomistes spp., 5:220, 5:221 Syngnathidae, 4:26, 4:46, 4:48, 4:69, 5:131, 5:133, 5:135, 5:136

Syngnathoidei, 5:131, 5:135

Syngnathus typhle, 5:133 Syngnathus watermeyeri. See River pipefishes Synodontidae, 4:60, 4:432, 4:433 Synodontis spp., 4:352 Synodontis angelicus. See African polka-dot catfishes

Synodontis multipunctatus. See Mochokid catfishes

Synodontis nigriventris. See Blotched upsidedown catfishes Synodontis schoutedeni. See Schouteden's

African squeaker catfishes Synodontoidei, 4:431 Synodus spp., 4:455

Synodus dermatogenys. See Clearfin lizardfishes Synodus englemani. See Engleman's lizardfishes Synodus intermedius. See Lizardfishes

Betta Fish

Betta Fish

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