Reproductive Biology

Spawning has not been observed, but it occurs during fall and winter, peaking in December and January and ending in March, probably near shore, where current speeds are low. Most reach reproductive age at the end of their second year, with females' egg production estimated at 1,800-5,200 eggs each season. (Related species have been estimated to produce more than 20,000 eggs.) Eggs are demersal and hatch pelagic larvae after 30-74 days, depending on water temperature. Maximum life span is about 12 years.

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