Reproductive Biology

Gonochoristic, with pair spawning and the release of demersal eggs near the bottom. Others in the genus release either pelagic or demersal eggs. Demersal eggs are larger compared to pelagic eggs in this species, about 0.023-0.031 in (0.6-0.8 mm) in diameter. Larvae hatch at 0.12 in (3 mm) in length, are pelagic, possess a large yolk sac, have an unformed mouth, and lack pigmented eyes. With growth, the body becomes moderate in depth and the mouth large. Possesses a gas bladder. The development of head spines is regarded as a specialization for pelagic life.

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