Reproductive Biology

Gonochoristic, with females tending to be larger than males. Courtship and spawning at night, with the release of pelagic eggs and larvae. Eggs are spherical and range in size from about 0.035 to 0.043 in (0.9-1.1 mm) in diameter. Hatching larvae are approximately 0.1-0.13 in (2.5-3.3 mm) in length, have unpig-mented eyes, an unformed mouth, and a large yolk sac. Pigmentation develops with absorption of the yolk. The body is elongate but becomes deeper and compressed with growth, and silvery in color (paper-fish phase). The ventral keel also becomes prominent with growth. The gas bladder is small to moderate in size. The mouth becomes smaller and oblique with development. Larvae are adapted for a relatively long pelagic life.

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