Reproductive Biology

Protogynous hermaphrodites. Paired courtship and pelagic spawning just prior to or after sunset. If a male has a haremic mating group, he will move back and forth between females to court them until they spawn. Eggs and larvae are pelagic. Eggs are spherical, about 0.027 in (0.69 mm) in diameter, and hatch after 15 hours incubation at 80.6°F (27°C). The yolk sac is

large, and the jaws and eyes undeveloped. Pigmentation develops with absorption of the yolk. Larvae are elongate and compressed laterally. Possess a gas bladder that is lost in adults. Specializations for pelagic life include serrations on the preop-ercle, a chin barbel (which disappears with growth), and the presence of cirri on the spinous dorsal fin membrane and also on the anterior nostril.

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