L

Labeo spp., 4:298 Labeo victorianus. See Ningu Labeoninae, 4:297 Labidochromis vellicans, 5:278 Labrador herrings. See Atlantic herrings Labridae. See Wrasses Labrisomidae, 4:48, 5:341, 5:343 Labroidei, 5:275-307, 5:282, 5:283, 5:299, 5:300

behavior, 5:277, 5:294-295 conservation status, 5:280-281, 5:298 distribution, 5:276-277, 5:294 evolution, 5:275-276, 5:293 feeding ecology, 5:277-279, 5:295-296 habitats, 5:277, 5:294 humans and, 5:281, 5:298 physical characteristics, 5:276, 5:293-294 reproduction, 5:279-280, 5:296-298 species of, 5:284-290, 5:301-307 taxonomy, 5:275, 5:293 Labroides spp., 4:69, 5:296 Labroides dimidiatus. See Bluestreak cleaner wrasses Labropsis spp., 4:69 Labyrinth catfishes, 4:352 Labyrinth fishes, 5:427-435, 5:430 Lace gouramies. See Pearl gouramies Lachnolaimus maximus. See Hogfishes Lactophrys polygonius. See Honeycomb cowfishes Lactophrys triqueter. See Smooth trunkfishes Lactoria cornuta. See Longhorn cowfishes Ladyfishes, 4:11, 4:69, 4:243-248, 4:245,

4:246 Lagoons, 4:48

See also Habitats Lagusia micracanthus, 5:220 Lake Ascotan Mountain killifishes. See

Ascotan Mountain killifishes Lake charrs. See Lake trouts Lake habitats, 4:38-39, 4:40, 4:52

See also Habitats Lake Malawi, cichlids, 5:275-276 Lake perches. See Yellow perches Lake sturgeons, 4:214, 4:216, 4:217-218 Lake Tanganyika, cichlids, 5:275-276 Lake Tanganyika lampeyes. See Tanganyika pearl lampeyes Lake trouts, 4:408, 4:418-419 Lake Victoria, cichlids, 5:275-276, 5:280-281 Lake whitefishes, 4:408, 4:410 Lamna spp., 4:132 Lamna ditropis. See Salmon sharks Lamna nasus. See Porbeagles Lamnidae, 4:4

Lamniformes. See Mackerel sharks Lampanyctinae, 4:441 Lampanyctus spp., 4:442 Lampanyctus g√ľntheri. See Lepidophanes guentheri Lampetra spp., 4:83 Lampfishes. See Cave basses Lamprey eels. See Sea lampreys Lampreys, 4:83-90, 4:87 evolution, 4:9-10, 4:83 feeding ecology, 4:69, 4:84, 4:85, 4:88-90 physical characteristics, 4:6, 4:23, 4:83, 4:84, 4:88-90

Lamprichthys tanganicanus. See Tanganyika pearl lampeyes Lamprididae, 4:447, 4:448, 4:449 Lampridiformes, 4:447-455, 4:451 Lampris spp., 4:447, 4:448, 4:449 Lampriis guttatus. See Opahs Lampris zatima, 4:448 Lamprologus spp., 4:66, 5:279 Lancer dragonets, 5:368, 5:369-370 Lances. See Inshore sand lances Lancetfishes, 4:433, 4:434, 4:435, 4:436 Land-locked salmons. See Sockeye salmons

Land-locked sea lampreys, 4:84 Lantern sharks, 4:151, 4:152 Lanterneye fishes. See Flashlightfishes;

Splitfin flashlightfishes Lanternfishes, 4:441-446, 4:444-445 Laotian shads, 4:278 Large-banded blennies, 5:342 Large-scale mullets, 5:61, 5:63-64 Large-scale spinycheek sleepers, 4:50, 5:378, 5:380

Largehead hairtails, 5:408, 5:416-417 Largemouth basses, 5:195, 5:196, 5:197,

5:199, 5:201, 5:204-205 Largemouth black basses. See Largemouth basses

Largenoses, 5:105, 5:106 Largescale foureyes, 4:33, 5:91, 5:95, 5:96 Largescale stonerollers. See Stonerollers Largespot river stingrays, 4:173 Larvae, 4:31, 4:34-36, 4:43, 4:62, 4:66 eels, 4:258, 4:262 marine fishes, 4:46-47 See also Reproduction Lateolabrax spp., 5:220, 5:221 Lateolabrax japonicus. See Japanese perches Lates spp., 5:220, 5:221, 5:222 Lates calcarifer. See Barramundis Lates japonica. See Japanese giant perches Lates niloticus. See Nile perches Latimeria spp., 4:190

Latimeria chalumnae, 4:12, 4:189-196, 4:190,

4:191, 4:194, 4:199 Latimeria menadoensis. See Indonesian coelacanths Latimeriidae, 4:190 Latridae. See Trumpeters Lau-lau, 4:355, 4:361, 4:363-364 Lauder, G. V., 5:427 Lavenberg, R. J., 5:352, 5:353 Lavoue, S., 4:255 Lawyers. See Burbots Lazara, Kenneth J., 5:90 Leaffishes, 4:57, 4:69, 5:235-238, 5:240, 5:242-244

Gangetic, 5:246, 5:250, 5:251 Leafy seadragons, 4:14, 5:133, 5:134, 5:137,

5:143, 5:146-147 Leather carps. See Common carps Leatherbacks. See Common carps Leatherjackets, 5:467-471 Lebiasinidae, 4:335 Lecanogaster spp., 5:355 Leiognathidae. See Ponyfishes Leiopotherapon spp., 5:220 Leis, J. M., 5:365

Lemon sole. See Winter flounders Lentipes concolor. See O'opo alamo'os Leopard loaches. See Coolie loaches Leopard sharks, 4:116, 4:118, 4:125, 4:128

See also Zebra sharks Lepadichthys spp., 5:355 Lepadichthys lineatus, 5:355 Lepadogaster spp., 5:355 Lepadogastrini, 5:355, 5:356 Lepidiolamprologus kendalli, 5:283, 5:286-287 Lepidogalaxias salamandroides. See

Salamanderfishes Lepidogalaxiidae. See Salamanderfishes Lepidophanes guentheri, 4:423, 4:444, 4:445-446 Lepidosiren spp., 4:197, 4:201-205 Lepidosiren annectens. See African lungfishes Lepidosiren paradoxa. See South American lungfishes Lepidosirenidae, 4:57 Lepidosireniformes. See Lungfishes Lepisosteidae, 4:11, 4:15, 4:221 Lepisosteiformes. See Gars Lepisosteus spp., 4:221 Lepisosteus ferox. See Alligator gars Lepisosteus oculatus. See Spotted gars Lepisosteus osseus. See Longnose gars Lepisosteus platostomus. See Shortnose gars Lepisosteus platyrhincus. See Florida gars Lepisosteus sinensis, 4:221 Lepisosteus tristoechus. See Cuban gars Lepomis spp., 4:15

Lepomis cyanellus. See Green sunfishes

Lepomis gibbosus. See Pumpkinseed sunfishes

Lepomis macrochirus. See Bluegills

Lepomis megalotis. See Longear sunfishes

Lepomis microlophus. See Red-ear sunfishes

Lepophidium spp., 5:22

Leptochariidae. See Barbeled hound sharks

Leptochilichthyes spp., 4:390

Leptocottus armatus. See Staghorn sculpins

Leptoscopidae. See Southern sandfishes

Leptostomias gladiator, 4:422

Lesser electric rays, 4:181, 4:185

Lesser spotted dogfishes, 4:34

Lesser weeverfishes. See Lesser weevers

Lesser weevers, 5:335, 5:336, 5:338-339

Lesuerigobius friesii. See Fries' gobies

Lethrinidae. See Emperors

Lethrinops furcifer. See Greenface sandsifters

Leuciscinae, 4:297

Leuciscus spp., 4:298

Leuciscus idella. See Grass carps

Leuciscus leuciscus. See Common daces

Leuciscus molitrix. See Silver carps

Leucopsarion petersi. See Japanese ice gobies

Leuresthes sardina, 5:69

Leuresthes tenuis. See California grunions

Leuroglossus stilbius. See California smoothtongues

Liberian swamp eels, 5:152

Limanda ferruginea. See Yellowtail flounders Lined seahorses, 5:134, 5:137, 5:139, 5:146 Lined surgeonfishes, 5:394, 5:396 Linesiders. See Striped sea basses Lingcods, 5:182, 5:183, 5:184, 5:191-192 Lings, 5:26 See also Burbots; Lingcods; Lotidae

Linnaeus, Carl on killifishes, 5:90 on Scorpaeniformes, 5:157 Liobranchia spp., 5:355 Liodesmidae, 4:229

5:165, 5:166 Liopropomini. See Swissguard basslets Liosaccus (= Sphoeroides) pachygaster. See

Blunthead puffers Liparididae. See Snailfishes Liparis fucensis. See Slipskin snailfishes Lipogenys spp., 4:249 Lissonanchus spp., 5:355 Literature, fish in, 4:72-73 Little guitars. See Guitarrita Little weevers. See Lesser weevers Live-bearers, 5:89-94, 5:95, 5:96, 5:99-101 Liza spp., 5:59

Liza grandisquamis. See Large-scale mullets Liza luciae, 5:60 Liza melinoptera, 5:60 Lizardfishes, 4:66-67, 4:431-434, 4:432,

4:433, 4:435, 4:438-439 Lo spp., 5:391, 5:393 Loach catfishes, 4:352, 4:353 Loach gobies, 5:373-375, 5:379, 5:380, 5:388 Loaches, 4:321-322, 4:323-324, 4:325-327,

4:331-332 Lobe-finned fishes, 4:12 Lobotes surinamensis. See Tripletails Lobotidae. See Tripletails Lockington, W. N., 5:351 Locomotion. See Movement Loddes. See Capelins Logperches, 5:200, 5:203, 5:208 Long-whiskered catfishes, 4:352, 4:353 Longear sunfishes, 5:195, 5:197, 5:198, 5:201, 5:204

Longfin angelfishes. See Freshwater angelfishes Longfin sculpins, 5:180 Longfin spadefishes, 5:395, 5:400, 5:401 Longfinned waspfishes, 5:163 Longfins, 5:255

See also Plesiopidae Longhorn cowfishes, 5:473, 5:479, 5:480 Longjaw bigscales, 5:107, 5:108-109 Longjaw squirrelfishes. See Squirrelfishes Longlure frogfishes, 5:48 Longnose batfishes, 5:52, 5:55, 5:56 Longnose butterflyfishes, 5:242 Longnose filefishes, 5:473, 5:478, 5:479 Longnose gars, 4:4, 4:68, 4:69, 4:222, 4:223,

4:225, 4:226, 5:406 Longnose hawkfishes, 4:45, 5:239, 5:240,

5:245, 5:248-249 Longnose lancetfishes, 4:435, 4:436 Longnose loaches. See Horseface loaches Longnose sawsharks. See Common sawsharks Longnose suckers, 4:322, 4:329-330 Longsnout blacksmelts, 4:392, 4:393 Longspine snipefishes, 5:138, 5:143-144 Longtail carpet sharks, 4:105 Longtail knifefishes, 4:370, 4:371, 4:372,

4:374, 4:376-377 Lookups. See Upper mouths Loosejaws, 4:423

See also Rat-trap fishes Lophiidae. See Monkfishes

Lophiiformes. See Anglerfishes Lophioidei. See Monkfishes Lophius americanus. See Monkfishes Lophius budegassa, 5:51 Lophius piscatorius. See Anglerfishes Lopholatilus spp., 5:256 Lophotidae, 4:447, 4:448 Lophotus spp., 4:447, 4:449, 4:453 Lophotus capellei, 4:453 Lophotus cepedianus, 4:453 Lophotus cristatus, 4:453 Lophotus lacepede. See Crestfishes Lorenz, Konrad, 4:61 Loricariidae, 4:352, 4:353 Lota spp., 5:26, 5:27 Lota lota. See Burbots Lotidae, 5:25, 5:26, 5:27, 5:29 Lotinae, 5:25

Lovettia sealii. See Tasmanian whitebaits

Lucania goodei, 5:92

Luces. See Northern pikes

Luciferase, 4:422

Luciferin, 4:422

Lucifugia spp., 5:17

Lucifugia simile, 5:18

Lucifugia spelaeotes, 5:18

Lucifugia (Stygicola) dentata, 5:18

Lucifugia subterranea, 5:18

Lucifugia teresianarum, 5:18

Luciocephalidae, 4:57

Luciocephalinae, 5:427

Luciocephalus spp., 5:427, 5:428, 5:429

Luciocephalus pulcher. See Pikeheads

Luciogobius spp., 5:375

Luminescent anchovies. See Lanternfishes

5:35, 5:39-40 Luminous sharks. See Cookie-cutter sharks Lumpenus medius, 5:310 Lumpfishes, 4:14, 4:22, 5:179, 5:180, 5:182,

5:184, 5:190-191 Lumpsuckers. See Lumpfishes Lunar tail bigeyes. See Goggle eyes Lundberg, J. G., 4:58 Lunges. See Muskellunges Lungfishes, 4:3, 4:12, 4:18, 4:55, 4:201-207, 4:204

See also Australian lungfishes Lushes. See Burbots Lutjanidae. See Snappers Lutjanus campechanus. See Northern red snappers

Lutjanus kasmira. See Blue banded sea perches Luvaridae. See Louvars Luvarus imperialis. See Louvars Luxilus spp., 4:301 Lycenchelys spp., 5:310 Lycenchelys antarctica, 5:311 Lycodapus spp., 5:310, 5:311, 5:312 Lycodapus mandibularis, 5:311 Lycodes spp., 5:310 Lycodes frigidus, 5:310 Lycodes pacificus, 5:309 Lycodontis funebris. See Green morays Lyconus spp., 5:26-28

Lyretail panchaxes. See Chocolate lyretails

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