Distribution

The Terapontidae occurs in freshwater, brackish, and coastal marine waters of the Indo-Pacific. A number of them, including Amniataba (one species), Bidyanus (two subspecies), Hannia (one species), Hephaestus (13 subspecies), Pelates (three subspecies), Pelsartia (one species), Pingalla (one species), Scor-tum (three subspecies), Syncomistes (four subspecies), and Vari-ichthys (two subspecies), have limited or endemic freshwater and brackish-water (some also marine) distributions in Australia and New Guinea. Others, such as Pelates and Terapon (three subspecies), are widely distributed from East Africa east to Southeast Asia, Japan, Australia, New Caledonia, and Lord Howe Island, or more narrowly in the western Pacific (for example, the monotypic Rhynchopelates oxyrhynchus). The genus Mesopristes has one species endemic to Madagascar and another to Fiji, in addition to two that occur more widely in the western Pacific. The genus Leiopotherapon has one species endemic to Luzon Island, Philippines, and another two that are endemic to Australia, whereas Lagusia micracanthus is endemic to Sulawesi, Indonesia. Pelates quadrilineatus, a wide-ranging Indo-West Pacific species, has also colonized the eastern Mediterranean from the Red Sea by way of the Suez Canal.

The Percichthyidae occurs in tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine and fresh waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. A number have limited or endemic distributions in the fresh or brackish waters of Australia and include Bostockia (one species), Guyu (one species), Maccullochella (three subspecies, but one with two subspecies), and Mac-quaria (four subspecies). Percichthys (five subspecies) is en demic to freshwaters in Argentina and Chile. Coreoperca, (three subspecies), Coreosiniperca (one species) and Sinoperca (five subspecies) are endemic to freshwaters of China, Korea, and Japan. The genus Lateolabrax has two species limited to coastal, brackish, or fresh waters of Japan. Bathysphyraenops simplex is widely distributed in coastal waters of the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic regions. The four species of the genus Howella are bathypelagic in the open ocean. The closely related Gadopsidae (genus Gadopsis, two subspecies) and Nannopercidae (genus Edelia, one species; genus Nannathe-rina, one species; and genus Nannoperca, four subspecies) are endemic to Australia. The Percilidae (genus Percilia; two subspecies) are endemic to Chile in South America.

The Kuhliidae are distinguished by wide-ranging Indo-Pacific species (including Kuhlia mugil, K. marginata, and K. rupestris), but there are also a number of limited-distribution or endemic species. Kuhlia caudavittata is limited to fresh and brackish waters of Reunion, Mauritius, Rodriguez, and Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. The Pacific Ocean counterpart is K boninensis, which occurs in the Ogasawara and Ryukyu Islands of Japan, but is also found at larger islands in Micronesia and also at Tahiti. Three species endemic to their localities in the Pacific region include K. munda from fresh and brackish waters in New Caledonia, K nutabunda, a marine species from Easter Island, and K. sandivicensis from marine, brackish, and fresh waters of the Hawaiian Islands. A monotypic genus, Parakuhlia, has been reported from the Atlantic.

The family Centropomidae includes 12 species of snooks (Centropomus spp.) found in warm marine and brackish waters of the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific, from the southern United States south to Brazil in the Atlantic, and Baja California and the Gulf of California south to Peru in the Pacific. Hypoterus macropterus is endemic to Western Australia in coastal waters of the southeast Indian Ocean. Six species of Lates are endemic to the Rift Lakes of East Africa (Lakes Albert, Rudolf, Tanganyika, and Turkana) and a seventh, the notorious Nile perch (L. niloticus) is present in some Rift Lakes, but also many of the major river systems of Africa and brackish water lakes of Egypt. This species was introduced into Lake Victoria with highly disastrous effects upon the endemic and greatly diverse fish fauna. Two other species of Lates are distributed in marine, brackish, and fresh waters of the Indo-West Pacific. The Japanese giant perch (L. japonica) is found in coastal waters and streams of Japan. The highly prized barramundi (L. calcarifer) occurs in Australia and New Guinea, but can also be found from the Arabian Gulf east to China and southern Japan, and south through Indonesia. Another Indo-West Pacific species is Psammoperca waigiensis, which ranges in marine and brackish waters from the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean east to Southeast Asia, China, Japan, the Philippines, and Indonesia, and south to northern Australia.

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