Distribution

The Ambassidae occurs in tropical and subtropical marine, brackish, and fresh waters of the Indo-West Pacific freshwater species are especially prominent in Australia, India, and Southeast Asia. The Polyprionidae has a scattered distribu tion in temperate and subtropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. The Serranidae is distributed in tropical, subtropical, and temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans some species occur in freshwater. The Grammatidae is...

Significance to humans

Despite their venomous nature, many scorpaenoids support important commercial and recreational fisheries worldwide. The rockfish fishery in the northern Pacific and Atlantic is one of the best known. Unfortunately, many Sebastes species have been overfished. This exploitation is due to numerous factors, including life history traits, oceanography, and the difficulty in identifying larval species, which interferes with accurate population management. Another interesting scor-paenoid fishery is...

Reproductive biology

Mating strategies, courtship, spawning, and postspawning investment by parents is variable within this group. Freshwater grunters migrate upstream or into the shallows of lakes to spawn, usually during summer months (wet season), although occasionally between autumn and late winter (dry season). Migrations are usually triggered by changes in water temperature, rising water levels in response to seasonal rains, or both. Spawning takes place during daylight or night, may be in groups, and results...

Pacific halibut

Hippoglossus stenolepis Schmidt, 1904, Aniva Bay, south Sakhalin Island, Sea of Okhotsk. English Northern halibut, right halibut French Fl tan du Pacifique Spanish Fletan del Pacifico. One of the largest species of flatfishes and among the largest of bony fishes. Typically dextral flatfishes, with a thick, sturdy, elongate, and diamond-shaped body and a highly compressed caudal peduncle with a crescent-shaped caudal fin that often is indented near the edges. The head is large, with a large...

Invemar

Smith Institute of Ichthyology Eugene K. Balon, PhD University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario, Canada George Benz, PhD Tennessee Aquarium Research Institute and Tennessee Aquarium Chattanooga, Tennessee Ralf Britz, PhD Smithsonian Institution Washington, D.C. University of New Orleans, Lakefront Jos I. Castro, PhD Mote Marine Laboratory Sarasota, Florida Bruce B. Collette, PhD National Marine Fisheries Systematics Laboratory and National Museum of Natural History Washington, D.C. Roy...

Physical characteristics

This grouping of fishes is varied, but vibrant color is a trademark of many species in the four families, and has made wrasses and damselfishes the highlights of reef-diving excursions. In addition, the scarids, labrids, and odacids all share unusual pharyngeal modifications that serve as additional chewing surfaces to grind kelp, hard-shelled invertebrates, and other dietary items. Generalizations can also be made about each of the four families. Most labrids, or wrasses, have gapped and...

Giant gourami

Osphronemus goramy Lacepede, 1801, Mauritius China Jakarta Batavia , Java, Indonesia. Osphronemus goramy Trichogaster leeri French Gourami g ant German Riesengurami Spanish Gurami gigante, gurami comestible. Largest species of anabantoids up to 23.6 in (60 cm) and 19.8 lb (9 kg). High body, laterally compressed. Lateral line not interrupted and nearly straight. Dorsal fin has 11-14 spines and 12-14 soft rays. Anal fin has 10-11 spines and 20-23 soft rays. First soft ray of pelvic fin is very...

Evolution and systematics

Fossils identified as zeiform fishes are confined to marine habitats and are relatively young, ranging in age from Oligocene to Holocene deposits. They have been found in Europe, the West Indies, South Africa, and Indonesia. The phy-logenetic relationships of the Zeiformes were explicated by Johnson and Patterson in their 1993 publication on the phy-logenetic relationships of the percomorph fishes. They recognized Zeiformes as a monophyletic taxon characterized by the following shared derived...

Glossary

Adipose fin A small, fleshy fin without rays. Afferent Conducting impulses toward nerve centers or blood toward the gills. Compare efferent. Agonistic behavior Aggressive and submissive interaction between individuals of the same species. Albinistic Displaying the characteristics of an albino an organism that has deficient pigmentation and white, colorless, or translucent skin and hair. Amphidromous Regular migration between fresh and seawater at different stages in their development. Ampulla A...

Feeding Ecology And Diet

Feeds on crustaceans, squid, and small fishes. Kim, B. J., M. Yabe, and K. Nakaya. Barbels and Related Muscles in Mullidae (Perciformes) and Polymixiidae (Poly-mixiiformes). Ichthyological Research 117 (2001) 409-413. Konishi, Y., and M. Okiyama. Morphological Development of Four Trachichthyoid Larvae (Pisces Beryciformes), with Comments on Trachichthyoid Relationships. Bulletin of Marine Science 60 (1997) 66-88. Kotlyar, A. N. A New Species of the Genus Polymixia from the Kyushu-Palau...

Vda

Wilhelm Meise Chief Curator, Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany Dr. Joachim Messtorff Field Station of the Federal Fisheries Research Institute Bremerhaven, Germany Dr. Marian Mlynarski Professor, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute for Systematic and Experimental Zoology Cracow, Poland Dr. Walburga Moeller Nature Museum Hamburg, Germany Dr. H.C.Erna Mohr Curator (retired), Zoological State Institute and Museum Hamburg, Germany Dr. Karl-Heinz Moll...

Behavior

Pyramid Butterflyfish Disease

There is considerable variety in social organization, locomotion, and other behavior among members of this group. General patterns characteristic of each family are presented here with some greater detail given to certain families. Goat- fishes move purposefully along the bottom while foraging and may accompany other bottom-feeding or swimming species for opportunistic feeding, and other fishes, such as wrasses (Labridae), may join them for the same reason. Many goat-fishes aggregate in small...

Resources

Pearl Killifishes. The Cynolebiatinae Systematics and Biogeography of the Neotropical Annual Fish Subfamily (Cyprinodontiformes Rivulidae). Neptune City, NJ T.F.H. Publications, 1995. -. Phylogeny and Classification of the Cyprinodontiformes (Euteleostei Atherinomorpha) A Reappraisal. In Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, edited by L. R. Malabarba, R. E. Reis, R. P. Vari, Z. M. Lucena, and C. A. S. Lucena. Porto Alegre, Brazil EDIPUCRS, 1998. Etnier,...

Hogchoker

Pleuronectes maculatus Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Tranquebar, India (in error). French Sole bavoche German Amerikanische Seezunge. physical characteristics Small, oval, dextral flatfish that have a deep and thick body without a definite caudal peduncle. The dorsal and anal fins are free from the caudal fin, and the right pelvic fin is joined to the anal fin. A relatively small head, with the snout slightly overhanging the small, subterminal mouth. The eyes are small, flat, and separated by a...

Siamese fighting fish

Betta splendens Regan, 1910, Menam River Mae Nam Chao Phraya , Thailand. English Betta French Combatant, combattant du Siam German Siamesischer Kampffisch Spanish Combatiente siam s. Up to 2.4 in (6 cm). Elongate cylindrical body, dorsal fin short with one to two spines and seven to 10 soft rays. Anal fin is long with two to five spines and 21-26 soft rays, caudal fin rounded. First soft ray of pelvic fin elongated. Sexually dimorphic males have larger fins and a brighter coloration, females...

California tonguefish

Aphoristia atricauda Jordan and Gilbert, 1880, San Diego Bay, California. French Langue californienne Spanish Lengua de perra. Small, sinistral flatfish with the characteristic tonguefish teardrop-shaped body terminating posteriorly in a point without a distinct caudal fin. The small head has a pointed snout. The small eyes are set close together. A small, subterminal mouth with small teeth best developed on the jaws of the blind side. Dorsal and anal fins are conjoined with the caudal fin,...

Ragfish

When the juvenile ragfish was first described by Lockington in 1880, there was apparently a premonition of the difficulty in placing this species into any existing taxonomic groupings. Indeed, the name of the single icosteoid representative, Icosteus aenigmaticus, means puzzling fish with yielding bones. Lockington hypothesized the ragfish's probable relationship to the blennioid fishes. He questionably assigned it to the family Blenniidae (the blennies) but stated that it probably should be in...

Blennies

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Blennioidei Number of families 6 Photo A mimic blenny (Aspidontus taeniatus) peers out from a wormhole in coral near the Florida Islands, Solomon Islands. (Photo by Fred Mc-Connaughey Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The suborder Blennioidei has a long and convoluted history of classification, with a variety of families historically being moved into and out of the suborder. Stability finally was established for the suborder when...

G

Gadella maraldi, 5 27 Gadiculus argenteus, 5 28 Gadidae, 5 25-30, 5 27 Gadiformes, 5 25-40, 5 27, 5 31 behavior, 5 29 conservation status, 5 29-30 distribution, 5 26-28 evolution, 5 25 feeding ecology, 5 29 habitats, 5 28-29 humans and, 5 30 physical characteristics, 5 25-26 reproduction, 5 29 species of, 5 32-40 taxonomy, 5 25 Gadinae, 5 25 Gadomus spp., 5 27 Gadopsidae. See Blackfishes Gadopsis spp. See Blackfishes Gadopsis marmoratus. See River blackfishes Gadus spp., 5 27 Gadus morhua. See...

Southern codicefshes

Antarctic Ice Fish

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Notothenioidei Number of families 8 Photo A scuba diver observes a blackfin icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus as it swims off the coast of Signy Island, one of the South Orkney Islands near the Antarctic Peninsula. Photo by Rick Price Corbis. Reproduced by permission. Photo A scuba diver observes a blackfin icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus as it swims off the coast of Signy Island, one of the South Orkney Islands near the Antarctic Peninsula. Photo...

Weeverfishes and relatives

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Trachinoidei Number of families 13 Photo A four-spined sandperch Parapercis tetra-cantha in the Balayan Bay of Luzon Island in the Philippines. Photo by Fred McMonnaughey Photo Researchers. Reproduced by permission. Photo A four-spined sandperch Parapercis tetra-cantha in the Balayan Bay of Luzon Island in the Philippines. Photo by Fred McMonnaughey Photo Researchers. Reproduced by permission. A group of fishes referred to as the trachinoids was...

Conservation status

Although none of the surfperches are listed by the IUCN, hundreds of cichlid species are either extinct or in great peril. There are 133 cichlids on the IUCN Red List, 44 of which are listed as Extinct and five of which are listed as Extinct in the Wild. Of the 37 Critically Endangered cichlids, all are from Africa or Madagascar, and most are from either Lake Barombi Mbo in Cameroon or the East African lakes Victo ria, Nabugabo, Kanyaboli, and Nawampasa. Humans are responsible for the plights...

Joturus Pichardi Mitochondrial

Mugiloidei Development and Relationships. In Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes, edited by H. G. Moser, W. J. Richards, D. M. Cohen, M. P. Fahay, A. W. Kendall, Jr., and S. L. Richardson. Lawrence, KS American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 1984. Harrison, I. J. Mugilidae. In Guta FAO para la Identification de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca Pacifico Centro-Oriental, edited by W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K E. Carpenter, and V. H. Niem. Vol....

Eelpouts and relatives

Sea Snail Eating Brittle Star

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Zoarcoidei Number of families 9 Photo An ocean pout Zoarces americanus in the Gulf of Maine. Photo by Andrew J. Martinez Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission. The zoarcoids, except for a few cryptic tidepool species, are a relatively obscure group of fishes of unverified affinity. On the basis of overall shape, fin structures, and position, and their ecological preference for living on sea bottoms in cold water, the most primitive...