A

Aba-aba, 4 57, 4 231, 4 232-233, 4 235, 4 237 Ablabys taenianotus. See Cockatoo waspfishes Able, K. W. on red hakes, 5 28 on white hakes, 5 28, 5 39 Abouts. See Rudds Abramis spp., 4 298 Abramis brama. See Carp breams Abyssobrotula galatheae, 5 15 Abyssocotidae, 4 57 Acanthemblemaria spp. See Barnacle blennies Acanthemblemaria maria. See Secretary blennies Acanthochromis polyacanthus. See Marine damselfishes Acanthocybium solandri. See Wahoos Acanthodii, 4 10 Acanthomorpha, 4 448...

Feeding Ecology And Diet

Feeds on aquatic and terrestrial insects, such as chironomid larvae, termites, and beetles, as well as small crustaceans, ostracods, fish scales, and small fish. The elements of this diet indicate feeding from the bottom to the surface of the water column. The recurved teeth on the outer surface of the upper and lower jaws facilitate the capture of chironomid larvae and ostracods on rocky substrates. Fish scales and small fishes indicate midwater feeding, while terrestrial insects suggest...

Reproductive Biology

Reach sexual maturity at approximately 3.9-4.7 in (10-12 cm) standard length. Spawns January through October. The eggs are about 0.09 in (2.3 mm) long and 0.02 in (0.63 mm) wide. Hatching starts at about 41 hours after fertilization, reaching its peak about 60-70 hours after fertilization. The males care for the eggs and guard the newly hatched fry. The larvae are initially pelagic but change to a more benthic habitat after about 25-30 days, becoming quite sedentary after about 40 days.

Physical characteristics

Beloniformes are typically elongate fishes, with dorsal and anal fins situated posteriorly on the body and the lateral line situated ventrally. Additional characteristics of the group include fusion of the toothed 5th ceratobranchials into a lower pharyngeal jaw and an open nasal pit. Belonids, aptly called needlefishes, are sleek and garlike piscivores, with very long upper and lower jaws studded with sharp teeth. They can achieve lengths of up to 3.3 ft (1 m). A small number of needlefishes...

Significance To Humans

Because of the venomous spines and its inshore, bottom-dwelling habits, it poses a hazard to swimmers. Shrimp fishermen sometimes capture them in their nets and need to handle them carefully. This species is too small for commercial fishery and is taken mostly as incidental catch. 6-33 ft (2-10 m). Eggs, which are about 0.14 in (3.5 mm), are stuck onto Sargassum species in spherical masses of about 600-2,300 they hatch asynchronously in about two months. Juveniles school and spend about three...

Resources

London Harcourt Brace and Company, 1995. Stiassny, M. L. J. Phylogenetic Intrarelationships of the Family Cichlidae An Overview. In Cichlid Fishes Behavior, Ecology and Evolution, edited by M. H. A. Keenleyside. London Chapman & Hall, 1991. Witte, F., P. C. Goudswaard, E. F. B. Katunzi, O. C. Mkumbo, O. Seehausen, and J. H. Wanink. Lake Victoria's Ecological Changes and Their Relationships with the Riparian Societies. In Ancient Lakes Their Cultural and...

Habitat

This is a troglobitic species i.e., an obligatory cave dweller, found in shallow wells (at depths of up to 1.6 ft 0.5m), sink holes, and deeper cave systems (at depths of up to 105 ft 32 m) that are freshwater or anchialine (located near the sea and flooded with sea water). In anchialine systems the fishes may live in freshwater layers that overlie the salt water. They are also found in brackish water, tolerating salinities from 0.27-34 parts per thousand and temperatures of 70-83 F (21-28 C).

Tetraodontiformes

(Pufjefshes, triggerfishes, and relatives) Class Actinopterygii Order Tetraodontiformes Number of families 9 Photo A whitespotted filefish (Cantherhines macro-cerus) sleeping, with dead fire coral in its mouth, at night, near the Los Rocas Islands of Venezuela. (Photo by Fred McConnaughey Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Photo A whitespotted filefish (Cantherhines macro-cerus) sleeping, with dead fire coral in its mouth, at night, near the Los Rocas Islands of Venezuela....

Conservation Status

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS Minor commercial and aquarium fish. Allen, Gerald R. Damselfishes. In Encyclopedia of Fishes, edited by John R. Paxton and William N. Eschmeyer. 2nd edition. San Diego Academic Press, 1998. Choat, J. Howard, and David R. Bellwood. Wrasses and Parrotfishes. In Encyclopedia of Fishes, edited by John R. Paxton and William N. Eschmeyer. 2nd edition. San Diego Academic Press, 1998. Helfman, Gene S., Bruce B. Collette, and Douglas E. Facey. The Diversity of Fishes. Malden, MA...

Evolution and systematics

The families Cichlidae (cichlids) and Embiotocidae (surf-perches) have traditionally been grouped in the suborder Labroidei, along with Labridae (wrasses), Scaridae (parrot-fishes), Pomacentridae (damselfishes), and Odacidae (western Pacific butterfishes). These groups were first suggested to share a common ancestry by M ller in 1843. All possess a pharyngeal jaw apparatus (a second set of jaws in the throat) that aids in the processing of food, and the morphological characters supporting their...

Black ruff

Perca nigra Gmelin, 1788, eastern Atlantic. other common names English Blackfish French Centrolophe noir German Schwarzfisch Spanish Romerillo. Length 43.3 in (110 cm). Elongate, with a rather small head and large eyes continuous dorsal fin extends most of the length of the body (with 4-5 weak spines and 32-38 rays) anal fin with 3 spines and 20-27 rays pelvic fins small, under pectorals pectorals with 19-23 rays caudal fin weakly forked mouth rather wide, extending posteriorly beneath eyes...

Behavior

The Ambassidae gathers in aggregations, some times quite large, under shelter. At night, these fishes become active and disperse as they feed. Fishes of the family Polyprionidae are probably territorial and patrol rather large home ranges. Within the Serranidae, the subfamilies Serraninae and Epi-nephelinae are largely solitary and territorial. Species that form haremic mating systems have multiple territories within that of a single male. Most species make good use of shelter or the bottom,...

Distribution

Anglerfishes are worldwide in distribution. With the exception of one antennariid (frogfish) species that has been known to enter freshwater, they are exclusively marine, and most species occur in deep water. The batfish (Ogcocephalus sp.) walks along the bottom on limb-like fins. A lure is located below the base of the rostrum. (Photo by David M. Schleser Nature's Images, Inc Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The batfish (Ogcocephalus sp.) walks along the bottom on limb-like...

Northern snakehead

Ophicephalus argus Cantor, 1842, Chusan Island, China. other common names German Amur-Schlangenkopf Chinese Hey yu Japanese Kamuruchi Russian Zmeegolov. Length 44.1 in (112 cm) a large snakehead. Has relatively small scales (LL 61-72), no scales on the underside of the jaw, large canine-like teeth on the upper and lower jaws two horizontal rows of 9-15 irregular dark brown blotches that sometimes coalesce, and brownish pectoral fins with a black mark at the base. Central China (Yangtze to Luan...

Orangespotted snakehead

Channa aurantimaculata Musikasinthorn, 2000, Dibrugarh, Assam, India. Maximum length 19.7 in (50 cm). Has two large scales on each side of lower jaw undersurface, scales relatively large (LL 51-54), black spot at the base of the pectoral fins with five vivid black vertical broad bands, and relatively small pelvic fins (less than half of pectoral fins). Very colorful, upper half of body dark brown to black, with seven or eight large irregular orange blotches, becoming yellow, golden, or orange...

Other Common Names

English Blue tang, hippo German Paletten-Doktorfisch. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS The body is compressed and somewhat disc-like it elongates with growth. The caudal fin is truncated in adults, but slightly rounded in juveniles. There are nine spines and 19-20 soft rays in the dorsal fin, three spines and 18-19 soft rays in the anal fin, 16 soft rays in the pectoral fin, and one spine and three soft rays in the pelvic fin. The caudal peduncle has a single folding spine on each side. The body is a...

N

Naked dragonfishes, 5 324, 5 325-326 Nandus nandus. See Gangetic leaffishes Nannatherina spp. See Nannatherina balstoni Nannocharax fasciatus. See Striped African darters Nannoperca spp., 5 220 Nannoperca australis. See Southern pygmy perches Nannoperca obscura. See Yarra pygmy perches Nannoperca oxleyana. See Oxleyan pygmy perches Nannoperca variegata. See Variegated pygmy perches Nanny shads. See Gizzard shads Nansenia pelagica, 4 392 Napoleon wrasses. See Humphead wrasses Narcine bancrofti....

L

See Ningu Labeoninae, 4 297 Labidochromis vellicans, 5 278 Labrador herrings. See Atlantic herrings Labridae. See Wrasses Labrisomidae, 4 48, 5 341, 5 343 Labroidei, 5 275-307, 5 282, 5 283, 5 299, 5 300 behavior, 5 277, 5 294-295 conservation status, 5 280-281, 5 298 distribution, 5 276-277, 5 294 evolution, 5 275-276, 5 293 feeding ecology, 5 277-279, 5 295-296 habitats, 5 277, 5 294 humans and, 5 281, 5 298 physical characteristics, 5 276, 5 293-294...

Ostracion cubicus

Ostracion cubicus Linnaeus, 1758, India. other common names French Poisson cube German Gelbbrauner Kofferfisch Afrikaans Koffertije Japanese Minami-hakofugu. Boxlike body with bony plates, a steeply sloping forehead, a subterminal mouth, a thick caudal peduncle, and a relatively large, somewhat rounded caudal fin. The dorsal and anal fins are positioned well back, just forward of the caudal peduncle. Body color of adults is a dirty yellow with a blueish hue and yellow seams between the body's...

Beryciformes

(Roughies, flashlighfishes, and squirrelfishes) Class Actinopterygii Order Beryciformes Number of families 7 Photo Four splitfin flashlightfishes (Anomalops katoptron), one with its lights off. (Photo by Fred McConnaughey Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Photo Four splitfin flashlightfishes (Anomalops katoptron), one with its lights off. (Photo by Fred McConnaughey Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Blackbar triggerfish

Rhinecanthus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758, India. other common names English Picassofish English and Hawaiian Humu humu French Poisson picasso sombre German Gemeiner Picassodr cker. Body compressed and somewhat oblong or rhomboid. The forehead slopes upward past the eye to just anterior to the dorsal fin. There are three spines and 23-26 soft rays in the dorsal fin and 21-23 soft rays in the anal fin. The color pattern is gray to grayish brown on the head and just below the dorsal fin and brown to...

Pleuronectiformes

Photo A Pacific leopard flounder (Bothus leopar-dinus) contrasting with the colorful sea ground near the Gal pagos Islands. (Photo by Fred Mc-Connaughey Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Photo A Pacific leopard flounder (Bothus leopar-dinus) contrasting with the colorful sea ground near the Gal pagos Islands. (Photo by Fred Mc-Connaughey Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Clown triggerfish

Balistoides conspicillum Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Indian and American seas. French Baliste lepreaux German Leoparden-Dr ckerfisch Afrikaans Nas-snellervis Japanese Mongarakawahagi. Body and caudal peduncle are compressed the body is robust and oval in shape. There are three spines and 25-27 soft rays in the dorsal fin as well as the anal fin. The first dorsal spine can be locked into an erect position. The caudal fin is somewhat rhomboid in shape. The body's color pattern is unmistakable. The...

Clingfishes and singleslits

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Gobiesocoidei Number of families 1 Photo Clingfish (Lepadichthys lineatus) use their sucking disc (modified pelvic fins) to cling to rocks, marine plants, or even sea urchins. (Photo by Animals Animals W. Gregory Brown. Reproduced by permission.) Photo Clingfish (Lepadichthys lineatus) use their sucking disc (modified pelvic fins) to cling to rocks, marine plants, or even sea urchins. (Photo by Animals Animals W. Gregory Brown. Reproduced by...

Taxonomy

Congiopodus peruvianus Cuvier, 1829, San Lorenzo Island, Peru. OTHER COMMON NAMES Spanish Pez chancho, chanchito Japanese Apachhi. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Grows to 11 in (28 cm) maximum length. Laterally compressed, with a single, sail-like dorsal fin. Snout has a single nostril on each side. The body is light brown with irregular dark blotches and spots, particularly on the dorsal fin. Additionally, there is a black band on the caudal peduncle and caudal fin. Cheliodonichthys spinosus...

Gale

Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Second Edition Volume 5 Fishes II Produced by Schlager Group Inc. Neil Schlager, Editor Vanessa Torrado-Caputo, Assistant Editor Stacey Blachford, Deirdre S. Blanchfield, Madeline Harris, Christine Jeryan, Kate Kretschmann, Jacqueline L. Longe, Mark Springer Randy Bassett, Mary K. Grimes, Lezlie Light, Christine O'Bryan, Barbara Yarrow, Robyn V. Young Wendy Blurton, Dorothy Maki, Evi Seoud, Mary Beth Trimper 2003 by Gale. Gale is an imprint of The Gale Group,...

Summer flounder

Pleuronectes dentatus Linnaeus, 1766, Carolina, United States. other common names English Fluke French Cardeau d' t Spanish Falso halibut del Canad . Large, sinistral flatfish with a narrow, relatively elongate and thick body. Prominent head with a large terminal mouth with a wide gape and strong canine teeth on both jaws. A rounded or doubly emarginate caudal fin. Eyes are relatively large, separated, and nearly equal in position. Lateral line is arched above the pectoral fin. Scales are small...

Info

See Pygmy sharks Eurasian minnows, 4 306, 4 309, 4 314 Fairy basslets, 4 44, 4 48, 4 67, 5 255, 5 259, European catfishes. See European wels European Community, pufferfish products Fall herrings. See Atlantic herrings False catsharks, 4 113, 4 114, 4 118, 4 124, European eels, 4 6, 4 256, 4 257, 4 260, False clown anemonefishes. See Clown European mudminnows, 4 379, 4 380, 4 382, False rednose tetras. See False rummynose European pilchards, 4 280, 4 285-286 False...

Percoidei II

(Bluefishes, dolphinfishes, roosterjishes, and remoras) Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Percoidei Number of families 4 Photo A leaping dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippu-rus) near Baja California. Dolphinfish are also known as mahi-mahi and dorado. (Photo by Lawrence Naylor Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Photo A leaping dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippu-rus) near Baja California. Dolphinfish are also known as mahi-mahi and dorado. (Photo by Lawrence Naylor Photo...

Pacific sanddab

Psettichthys sordidus Girard, 1854, San Francisco, California. other common names English Mottled sanddab, soft flounder, melgrim Spanish Lenguado arenero del Pacifico, lenguado. Medium-sized, sinistral flatfishes with an elongate to oval body large head with large terminal mouth and slightly Excellent food fish. Regarded as a delicacy in California but with less appeal elsewhere.

Acanthuroidei

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Acanthuroidei Number of families 6 Photo A yellowtailed surgeonfish (Prionurus lati-clavius) school swims over the lava bottom of the Roca Redonda, Gal pagos Islands. (Photo by Fred McConnaughey Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permsiion.) Photo A yellowtailed surgeonfish (Prionurus lati-clavius) school swims over the lava bottom of the Roca Redonda, Gal pagos Islands. (Photo by Fred McConnaughey Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by...

Mola

Mola mola Linnaeus, 1758, Mediterranean Sea. other common names English Ocean sunfish. Body large, tall, and compressed. The body is scaleless, with a thick, elastic skin. The mouth is small, with a parrot-like beak formed by fused teeth. The caudal fin is replaced by a clavus, a rudder-like body-fin adaptation. Both the dorsal and anal fins have relatively short bases but are very high. These fins are flapped in a synchronous motion that allows for reasonably good speed and also for swimming...

Climbing perch

Anthias testudineus Bloch, 1785, Japan. The diverse distribution and morphology of A. testudineus indicate that it may comprise more than one species. French Perche grimpeuse German Kletterfisch Spanish Perca trepadora. Length 9.8 in (25 cm). Robust body with wide, large head. Body shape ranges from oval and compressed to elongate and subcylindrical. Posterior edges of opercular bones, especially opercle, and subopercle, with strong spination. Without teeth on the palatine in contrast to most...

Common sole

Pleuronectes solea Linnaeus, 1758, European ocean. other common names English Dover sole French Sole commune German Seezunge Spanish Lenguado commune. Dextral flatfish with an elongate but rather thick body. The dorsal fin extends to the anterior part of the head, often to a point equal to a horizontal line drawn through the upper eye. Has a smoothly rounded head, projecting snout, and a small, subterminal mouth with small teeth and with the preopercu-lum covered by skin. On the blind side,...

Callionymoidei

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Callionymoidei Number of families 2 Photo A young fingered dragonet (Dactylopus dactylopus) on lava sand near the Sulawesi Island of Indonesia. (Photo by Fred McConnaughey Photo Researchers. Reproduced by permission.) Photo A young fingered dragonet (Dactylopus dactylopus) on lava sand near the Sulawesi Island of Indonesia. (Photo by Fred McConnaughey Photo Researchers. Reproduced by permission.)

African snakehead

Ophiocephalus obscurus G nther, 1861, West Africa. other common names German Dunkelb uchiger Schlangenkopf Dinka Abioth Ga Hauti Hausa Tuhi. Length 15.7 in (40 cm). Medium-sized, head somewhat concave, pointed in lateral view and depressed anteriorly has small scales (LL 65-78), patch of small scales near the tip of the underside of the lower jaw, and no large canine-like teeth on the upper jaw. Body brown to dark brown with several large black blotches, blackish mark at base of pectoral fins...

Canthigaster solandri

Canthigaster solandri Richardson, 1845, Polynesia. other common names English Spotted sharpnose puffer. Oblong and stocky body, with a pronounced snout, prickles on the belly, a rounded caudal fin, and the ability to inflate itself with water. Color is orangish red with blue spots over much of the body and on the orange caudal fin. The ventral surface is white. There is a black spot ringed in pale blue directly below the base of the dorsal fin. The dorsal fin is white, with a black base, and...

Peacock flounder

Pleuronectes lunatus Linnaeus, 1758, Bahamas. other common names French Rombou lune Spanish Lenguado ocelado. physical characteristics Sinistral flatfish with an oval and moderately deep body. Rounded to bluntly pointed caudal fin. The dorsal profile of the snout has a distinct notch above the nostrils, and there is a stout spine on the snout of adult males (a bony knob in females). Eyes are relatively large, with the lower eye distinctly anterior to the upper and with a broad interorbital...

Arothron hispidus

Arothron hispidus Linnaeus, 1758, India. other common names French Tetrodon marbr German Weissflecken-Kugelfisch Afrikaans Witspikkel-blaasop Japanese Sazanamifugu. Body elongate, robust, and capable of inflation with water. There are small spines on the body, except for the snout and caudal peduncle. The jaw teeth are fused but separated by a median suture. There are 10-11 soft rays in both the dorsal and anal fins. The caudal fin is rounded. Two fleshy tentacles emerge from each nostril. The...

Oxymonacanthus longirostris

Oxymonacanthus longirostris Bloch and Schneider, 1801, East Indies. English Harlequin filefish French Baliste a taches orange German Palettenstachier Japanese Tengukawahagi. Body compressed and elongate with a pronounced, almost tubular snout. There are two spines and 31-35 soft rays in the dorsal fin and 29-32 soft rays in the anal fin. The color is bright green with orange spots or elongated blotches. The eyes are ringed with orange. The caudal fin is whitish with a small dark spot...

Periodicals

Bigamy or Monogamy with Maternal Egg Care in the Triggerfish, Sufflamen chrysopterus. Ichthyological Research 43 (1996) 307-313. Kawase, H., and A. Nakazono. Two Alternative Female Tactics in the Polygynous Mating System of the Threadsail Filefish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Monacanthidae). Ichthyological Research 43, no. 3 (1996) 315-323. Kokita, T., and A. Nakazono. Pair Territoriality in the Longnose Filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris. Ichthyological Research...

Y

Yabe, M., 5 179 Yamames, 4 412 Yamur Lake grunters, 5 222 Yarra pygmy perches, 5 222 Yawlings. See Atlantic herrings Yellow boxfishes, 5 472, 5 480-481 Yellow goatfishes, 5 241, 5 246, 5 249, 5 250-251 Yellow grunts. See Bluestriped grunts Yellow perches, 4 15-16, 5 196-199, 5 197, 5 201, 5 204, 5 207-208 Yellow pikes. See Walleyes Yellow seahorses, 4 4, 5 132 Yellow stingrays, 4 181, 4 185, 4 188 Yellow tangs, 5 394, 5 398, 5 400 Yellowbellies. See Golden perches Yellowbelly cichlids. See...

Books

Catalog of Fishes, 3 vols. San Francisco California Academy of Sciences, 1998. Helfman, G. S., B. B. Collette, and D. E. Facey. The Diversity of Fishes. Malden, MA Blackwell Science, 1997. Leis, J. M., and B. M. Carson-Ewart, eds. The Larvae of Indo-Pacific Coastal Fishes An Identification Guide to Marine Fish Larvae. Boston Brill, 2000. Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno, and T. Yoshino, eds. The Fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Tokyo Tokai University...

Butterfish

Stromateus triacanthus Peck, 1804, New Hampshire, United States. English American butterfish French Stromate fossette Spanish Palometa pintada. Length about 11.8 in (30 cm). Body thin and deep, with short head and blunt snout. Single dorsal fin is taller shortly posterior to its origin, with 2-4 spines and 40-48 soft rays (II-IV, 40-48) pectoral fins moderately elongate with 1-22 fin rays 22-25 gill rakers lateral-line scales 96-105 anal fin almost as long as dorsal fin, with 3 spines and 37-44...

Ocellated snakehead

Ophicephaluspleurophthalmus Bleeker, 1851, Bandjermassing. other common names Indonesian Kerandang. Total length 15.7 in (40 cm). Body is distinctively compressed laterally and quite deep compared to other snakeheads, has moderately large scales (LL 49-55), large canine-like teeth on the upper and lower jaw, and patch of small scales near the tip of the underside of the lower jaw. Body grayish with scattered small black spots and several orange or orangey red-rimmed black ocelli, yellowish...

Percoidei I

(Perches and darters, North American basses and sunfishes, pygmy sunfishes, and temperate basses) Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Percoidei Number of families 4 Photo The pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gib-bosus) is found in large numbers in the shallow sheltered areas of ponds and lakes. (Photo by Animals Animals Stouffer Prod. Reproduced by per- Photo The pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gib-bosus) is found in large numbers in the shallow sheltered areas of ponds and lakes. (Photo...

H

Love, Milton S., Mary Yoklavich, and Lyman Thorsteinson. The Rockfishes of the Northeast Pacific. Berkeley University of a California Press, 2002. I Lythgoe, J., and G. Lythgoe. Fishes of the Sea. Garden City, NJ Anchor Press Doubleday, 1975. Mago-Leccia, F. Electric Fishes of the Continental Waters of America. Vol. 29, Biblioteca de la Academica de Ciencias Fisicas Matematicas y Naturales. Caracas, Venezuela FUDECI, 1994. Maissey, J. G. Santana Fossils an Illustrated Atlas. Neptune City, NJ T....

R

Raasch, Maynard S., 5 99 Rabbitfishes, 4 67, 5 391, 5 392, 5 393 See also Foxface rabbitfishes Rachycentridae. See Cobias Rachycentron canadum. See Cobias Radiicephalidae, 4 447, 4 448 Radiicephalus spp., 4 447, 4 449 Radiicephalus elongatus, 4 453 Ragfishes, 5 351, 5 351-353, 5 352, 5 353 Raia jamaicensis. See Yellow stingrays Rainbow darters, 5 198, 5 200, 5 203, 5 206 Rainbow seaperches, 5 283, 5 287, 5 290 Rainbow smelts, 4 391 Rainbow snakeheads, 5 438, 5 439, 5 440, 5 443 Rainbow...

Manofwar fish

Gobius gronovii Gmelin, 1788, eastern Atlantic. other common names English Bluebottle fish, shepherd fish Spanish Pastorcillo, Pez azul. Standard length 13.7 in (35 cm). Head somewhat tall, body tallest at level of pelvic fins, tapering posteriorly dorsal fin continuous, originating at midbody length, with 9-12 spines and 25-27 rays (IX-XII, 24-28) pectoral fins elongate, with 21-23 rays caudal fin forked, with some 15 rays anal fin with two spines and 24-29 rays (I II, 24-26) pelvic fins very...

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Orangestriped triggerfish

Balistapus undulatus Park, 1797, Sumatra, Indonesia. other common names English Orange-lined triggerfish French Baliste stri German Orangestreifen-Dr ckerfisch Afrikaans Oranje streep-snellervis Japanese Kumadori. Body compressed and oblong, the forehead sloping to above the eye, the caudal peduncle compressed, with a truncate caudal fin. There are three spines, 24-27 soft rays in the dorsal fin, and 20-24 soft rays in the anal fin. The first dorsal spine can be locked. Body color variably...

Gasterosteiformes

(Sticklebacks, seahorses, and relatives) Class Actinopterygii Order Gasterosteiformes Number of families 11 Photo The ornate, or harlequin, ghost pipefish (Solenostomus paradoxus) is a well-disguised seahorse relative that is rarely seen due to its highly effective camouflage. Here it is swimming by a sea fan. (Photo by Robert Yin Corbis. Reproduced by permission.) Photo The ornate, or harlequin, ghost pipefish (Solenostomus paradoxus) is a well-disguised seahorse relative that is rarely seen...

Scorpaeniformes II

Class Actinopterygii Order Scorpaeniformes Number of families 14 Photo A red lionfish (Pterois volitans) in the Coral Sea. The lionfish can give vemonous stings from its pelvic, dorsal, and anal spines. (Photo by JLM Visuals. Reproduced by permission.) Photo A red lionfish (Pterois volitans) in the Coral Sea. The lionfish can give vemonous stings from its pelvic, dorsal, and anal spines. (Photo by JLM Visuals. Reproduced by permission.)

Bullseye snakehead

Ophiocephalus marulius Hamilton, 1822, ponds and freshwater rivers of Bengal. English Great snakehead Thai Pla chon ngu hao, pla kalon Burmese Nga yan dyne Laotian Pa gooan Khmer Trey raws Bengali (West Bengal) Sal, gajal Sinhalese Ara. Among the largest of snakeheads (48 in or 122 cm maximum length). It has 4-6 large round black blotches on the body some populations have white margins and small white spots on these blotches. Also has a white or orange-rimmed ocellus on the upper portion of the...

D

See Common daces Dactyloptena spp., 5 157 g Dactyloptena orientalis. See Oriental helmet X gurnards Dactylopteridae. See Flying gurnards Dactylopteroidei. See Flying gurnards Dactylopterus spp., 5 157 Dactylopterus volitans. See Sea robins Dactylopus spp. See Young fingered dragonets Dactylopus dactylopus. See Young fingered dragonets Dactyloscopidae, 5 341 Dactyloscopus tridigitatus. See Sand stargazers Daector spp., 5 41-42 Dagaa, 4 303, 4 323, 4 316-317, 5 281 Dagetella spp., 4 209...

K

See Skipjack tunas Killies. See Northern mummichogs Killifishes, 4 12, 4 34, 4 35, 4 52, 4 57, 5 89, 5 89-102, 5 92, 5 94, 5 95, 5 97 Kim, B. J., 5 1 King mackerels, 4 4, 5 408, 5 413, 5 414 King of the herrings. See Oarfishes King salmons. See Chinook salmons Kirilchik, S. V., 5 180 Kissing gouramies, 4 57, 5 430, 5 431-432 Kitefin sharks, 4 151, 4 152 Kiunga ballochi, 5 70 Kneria spp., 4 290, 4 291 Kneria auriculata, 4 290 Kneria wittei, 4 292, 4 294 Kneriidae, 4 57, 4...

E

Eastern Australian galaxiids, 4 390 Eastern cleaner-clingfishes, 5 358, 5 359, 5 360 Eastern gizzard shads. See Gizzard shads Eastern whitefishes. See Lake whitefishes Echiichthys vipera. See Lesser weevers Echinorhinidae. See Bramble sharks Echinorhinus brucus. See Bramble sharks Echiodontines, 5 17 Echiostoma barbatum, 4 422 Eckloniaichthys spp. See Weedsuckers Eckloniaichthys scylliorhiniceps. See Weedsuckers Ecology freshwater, 4 36-41 historical, 4 70 marine, 4 42-51, 4 43, 4 44 See also...

Largehead hairtail

Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758, South Carolina. English Atlantic cutlassfish French Poisson sabre commun Spanish Pez sable. Maximum length 47 in (120 cm) total length, commonly 20-39 in (50-100 cm). Body extremely elongate and strongly compressed, ribbon-like tapering to a point. No caudal fin. Eye large, contained 5-7 times in head length (head length divided by eye diameter equals 5-7). Mouth large with a cartilaginous process at tip of upper and lower jaws. Two or three pairs of enlarged...

Library Of Congress Cataloginginpublication Data

English Grzimek's animal life encyclopedia. 2nd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references. Contents v. 1. Lower metazoans and lesser deuterosomes Neil Schlager, editor v. 2. Protostomes Neil Schlager, editor v. 3. Insects Neil Schlager, editor v. 4-5. Fishes I-II Neil Schlager, editor v. 6. Amphibians Neil Schlager, editor v. 7. Reptiles Neil Schlager, editor v. 8-11. Birds I-IV Donna Olendorf, editor v. 12-16. Mammals I-V Melissa C. McDade, editor v. 17....

Organizations

American Elasmobranch Society 114 Hofstra University Hempstead, NY 11549-1140 USA American Fisheries Society 5410 Grosvenor Lane Bethesda, MD 20814 USA Phone 301-897-8616 Fax 301-897-8096 main fisheries.org http www.fisheries.org American Livebearer Association 5 Zerbe Street, American Killifish Association 280 Cold Springs Drive Manchester, Pennsylvania 17345-1243 United States garrybartell sprintmailcom http www.aka.org American Society of Ichthyology and Herpetology http www.asih.org...

Usa

Muskies Canada Sport Fishing and Research, Inc. P.O. Box 814, Station C Kitchener North American Native Fishes Association 1107 Argonne Dr. Baltimore, MD 21218 USA Salmon and Trout Association (UK) Fishmongers' Hall, London Bridge London EC4R 9EL UK Phone 0207 283 5838 Fax 0207 626 5137 http www.salmon-trout.org South African Coelacanth Conservation and Genome Resource Somerset Street Private Bag 1015 Grahamstown 6140 South Africa Phone +27 (0)46 636 1002 Fax +27 (0)46 622 2403 TRAFFIC...

Rainbow snakehead

Channa bleheri Vierke, 1991, upper portion of Dibru River, near Guijan, Brahmaputra River basin, northeastern Assam, India. Length 3.9 in (10 cm), one of the smallest snakeheads. Has relatively large scales (LL 42-46), no pelvic fins, and a single large scale on each side of the underside of the lower jaw. One of the most colorful snakeheads, has very distinctive 4-11 medium-to-large irregular red or orange spots on the caudal fin which sometimes coalesce and pectoral fins with a black spot at...

Walking snakehead

Channa orientalis Bloch and Schneider, 1801, India orientali (presumably Sri Lanka). English Smooth-breasted snakehead Sinhalese Kola kanaya. physical characteristics Maximum length 3.9 in (10 cm) one of the smallest snake-heads. Pelvic fins absent body scales relatively large (LL 39-43), and a single large scale is on each side of the underside of lower jaw. Body often has bluish cast with 8-11 black descending bands on a grayish to dark brown dorsal background blending into a whitish ventral,...

Stromateoidei

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Stromateoidei Number of families 6 Photo The butterfish (Peprilus triacanthus) is a small schooling fish that is found off the East Coast of the United States. They are named for their flavor, not their appearance. (Photo by Animals Animals Zig Leszczynski. Reproduced by permission.) Photo The butterfish (Peprilus triacanthus) is a small schooling fish that is found off the East Coast of the United States. They are named for their flavor, not...

Scorpaeniformes III

(Greenlings, sculpins, and relatives) Class Actinopterygii Order Scorpaeniformes Number of families 10 Photo The red Irish lord (Hemilepidotus hemilepi-dotus) is one of the most beautiful sculpins. It can be found in a number of different colors. (Photo by David Hall Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Photo The red Irish lord (Hemilepidotus hemilepi-dotus) is one of the most beautiful sculpins. It can be found in a number of different colors. (Photo by David Hall Photo...

Swordfish

Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, European seas. other common names French Espadon Spanish Pez espada. Reaches a maximum size of 175 in (445 cm) total length and approximately 1,190 lb (540 kg). The body is elongate and cylindrical. Two widely separated dorsal fins in adults, the first much larger than the second, the first with 34-49 rays, the second with four to six rays. Two separate anal fins in adults, the first with 12-16 rays, the second with three or four rays. Pectoral fins falcate,...

Scorpaeniformes I

Class Actinopterygii Order Scorpaeniformes Number of families 4 Photo An Oriental helmet gurnard (Dactyloptena orientalis) sleeping on the lava sand of the Lem-beh Straits of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. (Photo by Fred McConnaughey Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Photo An Oriental helmet gurnard (Dactyloptena orientalis) sleeping on the lava sand of the Lem-beh Straits of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. (Photo by Fred McConnaughey Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

U

Umbra spp., 4 379, 4 380 Umbra krameri. See European mudminnows Umbra limi. See Central mudminnows Umbra pygmaea, 5 91 Umbrella mouth gulpers. See Pelican eels Unicorn cods. See Bregmacerotidae Unicornfishes, 4 67-68, 4 447, 4 453 United States Fish and Wildlife Service Alabama cavefishes, 5 10 Atheriniformes, 5 71 Ozark cavefishes, 5 8 snakeheads, 5 439 United States National Marine Fisheries Service, 4 414, 5 51, 5 56 Upper mouths, 4 4, 4 304, 4 309-310 See also Physical characteristics...

V

See Yamur Lake grunters Veil angelfishes. See Freshwater angelfishes Velifer spp., 4 447 Veliferidae, 4 448, 4 449 Velvet catfishes, 4 352 Velvet whalefishes. See Red whalefishes Velvetfishes, 5 163, 5 164, 5 166 Venomous fishes scorpaenoidei, 5 165 weeverfishes, 5 335 Veronavelifer spp., 4 448 Vertebrata, 4 9 Vertical migration, 4 49, 4 60, 4 61, 4 442, 4 443 See also Behavior Vidalamiinae, 4 229 Vinciguerria spp., 4 424 Vinciguerria lucetia, 4 424 Violet gobies, 5 378, 5...

A brief geologic history of animal life

A note about geologic time scales A cursory look will reveal that the timing of various geological periods differs among textbooks. Is one right and the others wrong Not necessarily. Scientists use different methods to estimate geological time methods with a precision sometimes measured in tens of millions of years. There is, however, a general agreement on the magnitude and relative timing associated with modern time scales. The closer in geological time one comes to the present, the more...

Percoidei III

(Grunters, temperate basses and perches, snooks and giant perches, and relatives) Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Percoidei Number of families 7 Photo A common snook (centropomus undeci-malis) swimming in the Florida Keys, USA. (Photo by Larry Lipsky. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Photo A common snook (centropomus undeci-malis) swimming in the Florida Keys, USA. (Photo by Larry Lipsky. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Striped snakehead

Ophicephalus striatus Bloch, 1793, Tranquebar, Malabar coast, India. English Chevron snakehead, snakehead murrel German Quergestreifter Schlangenkopf Burmese Nga-yan Khmer Trey raws Bengali Shol Laotian Pa kho Malay Aruan Indonesian Ikan gabus Thai Pla chon Vietnamese Ca lok. Length 23.6 in (60 cm). No scales on underside of the jaw, no large canine-like teeth on the upper jaw, moderately large scales (lateral line scales 50-61). Generally dark brown above, extending into irregular blackish...

X

See Silver needlefishes Xenisthmidae, 5 373, 5 374 Xenocyprinae, 4 297 Xenocypris spp., 4 299-300 Xenocypris microlepis. See Smallscale yellowfins Xenolepidichthys dalgleishi. See Tinselfishes Xenomedea spp., 5 343 Xenomystinae, 4 232 Xenomystus spp., 4 232 Xenomystus nigri, 4 232, 4 233 Xenophthalmichthys spp., 4 392 Xenopoecilus spp., 5 80 Xenopoecilus oophorus, 5 81 Xenopoecilus poptae, 5 81 Xenopoecilus sarasinorum, 5 81 Xenotoca eiseni. See Redtail splitfins...

P

Pachycara spp., 5 310 Pachylebias spp., 5 90 Pacific American sardines. See South American pilchards Pacific angelsharks, 4 161, 4 162, 4 163, 4 164 Pacific barreleyes. See Barreleyes Pacific foureyed fishes, 5 90, 5 93 Pacific hagfishes, 4 77, 4 78, 4 81 Pacific halibuts, 5 451, 5 454, 5 457, 5 458-459 Pacific herrings, 4 280, 4 281, 4 284 Pacific leopard flounders, 5 449 Pacific salmons. See Chinook salmons Pacific sanddabs, 5 454, 5 457-458 Pacific sleeper sharks, 4 151, 4 152 Pacific...

Contributors to the first edition

The following individuals contributed chapters to the original edition of Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, which was edited by Dr. Bernhard Grzimek, Professor, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany Director, Frankfurt Zoological Garden, Germany and Trustee, Tanzanian National Parks, Tanzania. Dr. Michael Abs Curator, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany Bombay Natural History Society Bombay, India Dr. Rudolph Altevogt Professor, Zoological Institute, University of M nster M nster, Germany...

Pikehead

Luciocephalus pulcher significance to humans Ornamental fish for specialized hobbyists. Diplopterus pulcher Gray, 1831, type locality not specified. German Hechtkopf Spanish Cabeza de lucio. Length 6 in (15 cm). Elongate, with large head and highly pro-trusible upper jaws. Labyrinth simple. Has separate endoskele-tal ossification in front of basihyal, erroneously termed gular element by some authors. Caudal fin is rounded, dorsal fin is short with nine to 11 soft rays, anal fin with a median...

Windowpane flounder

Pleuronectes aquosus Mitchill, 1815, New York, United States. other common names English Sand dab spotted flounder, brill French Turbot de sable. Medium-sized, sinistral flatfish characterized by a deep, nearly round, thin, and almost translucent body with a rounded caudal fin. The head is small with a relatively large mouth having a wide gape and with a projecting lower jaw that has a knob on its ventral surface. Small teeth are present on both jaws. The first 10-12 fin rays of the dorsal fin...

T

Taaningichthys spp., 4 442 Tabbigaws. See Port Jackson sharks Tactostoma macropus, 4 422 Tadpole sculpins, 5 181 Taeniura lymma. See Blue-spotted stingrays Tailors. See Bluefishes Taisho sanshoku, 4 299 Takifugu spp. See Fugus Takifugu rubripes. See Fugus Talking catfishes, 4 352 Tambaqui, 4 339 Tampico cichlids, 5 275 Tandan catfishes, 4 352 Tanganyika killifishes. See Tanganyika pearl lampeyes Tanganyika pearl killifishes. See Tanganyika pearl lampeyes Tanganyika pearl lampeyes, 5 93, 5 95, 5...

S

Saber-toothed blennies, 4 56, 5 342 Sabertooth fishes, 4 432 Sabertooth viperfishes, 4 421 Sablefishes, 5 179, 5 182, 5 183, 5 184, 5 186-187 Saccogaster melanomycter, 5 18 Saccopharyngidae, 4 271, 4 272 Saccopharyngiformes, 4 11, 4 271-276, 4 273 Saccopharyngoidei, 4 271 Saccopharynx spp., 4 271, 4 274, 4 275 Saccopharynx ampullaceus. See Gulper eels Saddleback gunnels, 5 312, 5 314, 5 316 Saeed, B., 5 67 Safina, C., 5 418 Sailfin dories. See Buckler dories Sailfin plunderfishes, 5 324, 5 325...

Giant snakehead

Ophicephalus micropeltes Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831, Java. English Red snakehead Khmer Trey chhdaur Laotian Pa do Malay Ikan toman Thai Pla chado Vietnamese Ca bong. Length 51.2 in (130 cm) one of the largest snakeheads. Has very small scales (LL 83-106) patch of small scales near underside tip of lower jaw large canine-like teeth on upper and lower jaws. Juveniles have vivid black horizontal stripe above and below a bright orange to red stripe running head to tail. Coloration...

M

See Eastern freshwater cods Maccullochella macquariensis. See Trout cods Maccullochella peelii. See Murray cods Mary River cods Maccullochella peelii mariensis. See Mary River cods Maccullochella peelii peelii. See Murray cods Mackerel icefishes, 5 323, 5 324, 5 326-327 Mackerel sharks, 4 131-142, 4134 behavior, 4 132-133 conservation, 4 133 distribution, 4 132 evolution, 4 131-132 feeding ecology, 4 133 habitats, 4 132 humans and, 4 133 physical characteristics, 4 132...

Pacific halibut

Hippoglossus stenolepis Schmidt, 1904, Aniva Bay, south Sakhalin Island, Sea of Okhotsk. English Northern halibut, right halibut French Fl tan du Pacifique Spanish Fletan del Pacifico. One of the largest species of flatfishes and among the largest of bony fishes. Typically dextral flatfishes, with a thick, sturdy, elongate, and diamond-shaped body and a highly compressed caudal peduncle with a crescent-shaped caudal fin that often is indented near the edges. The head is large, with a large...

Invemar

Smith Institute of Ichthyology Eugene K. Balon, PhD University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario, Canada George Benz, PhD Tennessee Aquarium Research Institute and Tennessee Aquarium Chattanooga, Tennessee Ralf Britz, PhD Smithsonian Institution Washington, D.C. University of New Orleans, Lakefront Jos I. Castro, PhD Mote Marine Laboratory Sarasota, Florida Bruce B. Collette, PhD National Marine Fisheries Systematics Laboratory and National Museum of Natural History Washington, D.C. Roy...

Giant gourami

Osphronemus goramy Lacepede, 1801, Mauritius China Jakarta Batavia , Java, Indonesia. Osphronemus goramy Trichogaster leeri French Gourami g ant German Riesengurami Spanish Gurami gigante, gurami comestible. Largest species of anabantoids up to 23.6 in (60 cm) and 19.8 lb (9 kg). High body, laterally compressed. Lateral line not interrupted and nearly straight. Dorsal fin has 11-14 spines and 12-14 soft rays. Anal fin has 10-11 spines and 20-23 soft rays. First soft ray of pelvic fin is very...

Glossary

Adipose fin A small, fleshy fin without rays. Afferent Conducting impulses toward nerve centers or blood toward the gills. Compare efferent. Agonistic behavior Aggressive and submissive interaction between individuals of the same species. Albinistic Displaying the characteristics of an albino an organism that has deficient pigmentation and white, colorless, or translucent skin and hair. Amphidromous Regular migration between fresh and seawater at different stages in their development. Ampulla A...

Spotfin porcupinefish

Diodon hystrix Linnaeus, 1758, India. other common names English Spot-fin porcupinefish French Diodon porc-epic German Gepunkter Igelfisch Afrikaans Penvis Japanese Nezumifugu. Body elongate, stocky, and inflatable. Several long, strong spines cover the body, with a row of 20 stretching from the snout to the dorsal fin. The jaw has two fused teeth that are quite adept at crushing food items. There are 14-17 soft rays in the dorsal fin and 14-16 soft rays in the anal fin. The body color is...

Vda

Wilhelm Meise Chief Curator, Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany Dr. Joachim Messtorff Field Station of the Federal Fisheries Research Institute Bremerhaven, Germany Dr. Marian Mlynarski Professor, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute for Systematic and Experimental Zoology Cracow, Poland Dr. Walburga Moeller Nature Museum Hamburg, Germany Dr. H.C.Erna Mohr Curator (retired), Zoological State Institute and Museum Hamburg, Germany Dr. Karl-Heinz Moll...

Hogchoker

Pleuronectes maculatus Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Tranquebar, India (in error). French Sole bavoche German Amerikanische Seezunge. physical characteristics Small, oval, dextral flatfish that have a deep and thick body without a definite caudal peduncle. The dorsal and anal fins are free from the caudal fin, and the right pelvic fin is joined to the anal fin. A relatively small head, with the snout slightly overhanging the small, subterminal mouth. The eyes are small, flat, and separated by a...

Siamese fighting fish

Betta splendens Regan, 1910, Menam River Mae Nam Chao Phraya , Thailand. English Betta French Combatant, combattant du Siam German Siamesischer Kampffisch Spanish Combatiente siam s. Up to 2.4 in (6 cm). Elongate cylindrical body, dorsal fin short with one to two spines and seven to 10 soft rays. Anal fin is long with two to five spines and 21-26 soft rays, caudal fin rounded. First soft ray of pelvic fin elongated. Sexually dimorphic males have larger fins and a brighter coloration, females...

California tonguefish

Aphoristia atricauda Jordan and Gilbert, 1880, San Diego Bay, California. French Langue californienne Spanish Lengua de perra. Small, sinistral flatfish with the characteristic tonguefish teardrop-shaped body terminating posteriorly in a point without a distinct caudal fin. The small head has a pointed snout. The small eyes are set close together. A small, subterminal mouth with small teeth best developed on the jaws of the blind side. Dorsal and anal fins are conjoined with the caudal fin,...

Ragfish

When the juvenile ragfish was first described by Lockington in 1880, there was apparently a premonition of the difficulty in placing this species into any existing taxonomic groupings. Indeed, the name of the single icosteoid representative, Icosteus aenigmaticus, means puzzling fish with yielding bones. Lockington hypothesized the ragfish's probable relationship to the blennioid fishes. He questionably assigned it to the family Blenniidae (the blennies) but stated that it probably should be in...

Blennies

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Blennioidei Number of families 6 Photo A mimic blenny (Aspidontus taeniatus) peers out from a wormhole in coral near the Florida Islands, Solomon Islands. (Photo by Fred Mc-Connaughey Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The suborder Blennioidei has a long and convoluted history of classification, with a variety of families historically being moved into and out of the suborder. Stability finally was established for the suborder when...

G

Gadella maraldi, 5 27 Gadiculus argenteus, 5 28 Gadidae, 5 25-30, 5 27 Gadiformes, 5 25-40, 5 27, 5 31 behavior, 5 29 conservation status, 5 29-30 distribution, 5 26-28 evolution, 5 25 feeding ecology, 5 29 habitats, 5 28-29 humans and, 5 30 physical characteristics, 5 25-26 reproduction, 5 29 species of, 5 32-40 taxonomy, 5 25 Gadinae, 5 25 Gadomus spp., 5 27 Gadopsidae. See Blackfishes Gadopsis spp. See Blackfishes Gadopsis marmoratus. See River blackfishes Gadus spp., 5 27 Gadus morhua. See...

Southern codicefshes

Antarctic Ice Fish

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Notothenioidei Number of families 8 Photo A scuba diver observes a blackfin icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus as it swims off the coast of Signy Island, one of the South Orkney Islands near the Antarctic Peninsula. Photo by Rick Price Corbis. Reproduced by permission. Photo A scuba diver observes a blackfin icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus as it swims off the coast of Signy Island, one of the South Orkney Islands near the Antarctic Peninsula. Photo...

Weeverfishes and relatives

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Trachinoidei Number of families 13 Photo A four-spined sandperch Parapercis tetra-cantha in the Balayan Bay of Luzon Island in the Philippines. Photo by Fred McMonnaughey Photo Researchers. Reproduced by permission. Photo A four-spined sandperch Parapercis tetra-cantha in the Balayan Bay of Luzon Island in the Philippines. Photo by Fred McMonnaughey Photo Researchers. Reproduced by permission. A group of fishes referred to as the trachinoids was...

Joturus Pichardi Mitochondrial

Mugiloidei Development and Relationships. In Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes, edited by H. G. Moser, W. J. Richards, D. M. Cohen, M. P. Fahay, A. W. Kendall, Jr., and S. L. Richardson. Lawrence, KS American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 1984. Harrison, I. J. Mugilidae. In Guta FAO para la Identification de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca Pacifico Centro-Oriental, edited by W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K E. Carpenter, and V. H. Niem. Vol....

Eelpouts and relatives

Sea Snail Eating Brittle Star

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Zoarcoidei Number of families 9 Photo An ocean pout Zoarces americanus in the Gulf of Maine. Photo by Andrew J. Martinez Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission. The zoarcoids, except for a few cryptic tidepool species, are a relatively obscure group of fishes of unverified affinity. On the basis of overall shape, fin structures, and position, and their ecological preference for living on sea bottoms in cold water, the most primitive...