Behavior

Most knowledge of anglerfish behavior is associated with the specialized adaptations that have made them such effective and successful ambush predators. Most important among them are the angling apparatus and the functional morphological features of the feeding mechanism. These adaptations, along with certain reproductive adaptations, have made the an-glerfish among the most successful predators in the deep sea. The angling apparatus (illicium) is derived from the ante-riormost spine in the...

P

Pachycara spp., 5 310 Pachylebias spp., 5 90 Pacific American sardines. See South American pilchards Pacific angelsharks, 4 161, 4 162, 4 163, 4 164 Pacific barreleyes. See Barreleyes Pacific foureyed fishes, 5 90, 5 93 Pacific hagfishes, 4 77, 4 78, 4 81 Pacific halibuts, 5 451, 5 454, 5 457, 5 458-459 Pacific herrings, 4 280, 4 281, 4 284 Pacific leopard flounders, 5 449 Pacific salmons. See Chinook salmons Pacific sanddabs, 5 454, 5 457-458 Pacific sleeper sharks, 4 151, 4 152 Pacific...

Significance to humans

The most obvious significance to humans of greenlings and sculpins is the importance as food of the few commercially sought species. Before the availability of ice or refrigeration systems, the lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) was the target of fishing with hook and line by boats with flooded holds for keeping the fish live (and therefore fresh) until delivery to processing plants. The lack of a swimbladder enabled keeping the lingcod alive during extended fishing trips. Diversification of fish...

Contributors to the first edition

The following individuals contributed chapters to the original edition of Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, which was edited by Dr. Bernhard Grzimek, Professor, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany Director, Frankfurt Zoological Garden, Germany and Trustee, Tanzanian National Parks, Tanzania. Dr. Michael Abs Curator, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany Bombay Natural History Society Bombay, India Dr. Rudolph Altevogt Professor, Zoological Institute, University of M nster M nster, Germany...

Taxonomy

Gempylus serpens Cuvier, 1829, Tropic of Cancer. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Escolier serpent Spanish Escolar de canal. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Maximum length approximately 40 in (1 m), commonly to 24 in (60 cm). Body greatly elongate and strongly compressed. Tips of upper and lower jaws with cartilaginous processes. Three immovable and zero to three movable fangs anteriorly in upper jaw. First dorsal fin long with 26-32 spines, second dorsal fin with 11-14 soft rays followed by five or six...

Resources

Courtship Behaviour in the Dwarf Seahorse, Hippocampus zosterae. Copeia 1996, no. 3 (1996) 634-640. Orr, James W., and Ronald A. Fritzsche. Revision of the Ghost Pipefishes, Family Solenostomidae (Teleostei Syngnathoidei). Copeia 1993, no. 1 (1993) 168-182. Palsson, W. A., and T. W. Pietsch. Revision of the Acanthopterygian Fish Family Pegasidae (Order Gasterosteiformes). Indo-Pacific Fishes 18 (1989) 1-38. Pietsch, T. W. Evolutionary Relationships of the Sea...

Reproductive Biology

Males may establish and patrol reproductive territories, but evidence for this is inconclusive. Males defend nest cavities prior to breeding and pair with females prior to spawning for two to six days. Spawning may last several hours, during which females deposit eggs on the underside of the roof of the nest cavity before being chased out by the male. Individual females may spawn four clutches a season, with an average of nearly 14,000 eggs. After spawning,...

Pikehead

Luciocephalus pulcher significance to humans Ornamental fish for specialized hobbyists. Diplopterus pulcher Gray, 1831, type locality not specified. German Hechtkopf Spanish Cabeza de lucio. Length 6 in (15 cm). Elongate, with large head and highly pro-trusible upper jaws. Labyrinth simple. Has separate endoskele-tal ossification in front of basihyal, erroneously termed gular element by some authors. Caudal fin is rounded, dorsal fin is short with nine to 11 soft rays, anal fin with a median...

Physical Characteristics

Sailfishes reach a maximum size of approximately 11 ft (3.5 m) total length and 220 lb (100 kg). Body fairly compressed. Two dorsal and two anal fins, the first dorsal fin sail-like and remarkably higher than greatest body depth, with 42-49 rays. Second dorsal fin with six or seven rays, slightly posterior to second anal fin which also has six or seven rays. Pectoral fins moderate, 18-20 rays. Pelvic fins extremely long, almost reaching the anus, depressable into a groove, with one spine and...

Conservation Status

Early accounts listed the lumpfish as being of no economic value, but they were always a bycatch in the inshore cod trap and gillnet fishery, and their ripe eggs were marketed as caviar starting in the late 1960s. In North America the flesh is sold as dog food, but it is eaten by people in Europe. The eggs are stripped from ripe females and packed in brine for preparation as lumpfish caviar. Overfishing has occurred. In Newfoundland the catch rate was 229 lb (104 kg) per...

Windowpane flounder

Pleuronectes aquosus Mitchill, 1815, New York, United States. other common names English Sand dab spotted flounder, brill French Turbot de sable. Medium-sized, sinistral flatfish characterized by a deep, nearly round, thin, and almost translucent body with a rounded caudal fin. The head is small with a relatively large mouth having a wide gape and with a projecting lower jaw that has a knob on its ventral surface. Small teeth are present on both jaws. The first 10-12 fin rays of the dorsal fin...

T

Taaningichthys spp., 4 442 Tabbigaws. See Port Jackson sharks Tactostoma macropus, 4 422 Tadpole sculpins, 5 181 Taeniura lymma. See Blue-spotted stingrays Tailors. See Bluefishes Taisho sanshoku, 4 299 Takifugu spp. See Fugus Takifugu rubripes. See Fugus Talking catfishes, 4 352 Tambaqui, 4 339 Tampico cichlids, 5 275 Tandan catfishes, 4 352 Tanganyika killifishes. See Tanganyika pearl lampeyes Tanganyika pearl killifishes. See Tanganyika pearl lampeyes Tanganyika pearl lampeyes, 5 93, 5 95, 5...

S

Saber-toothed blennies, 4 56, 5 342 Sabertooth fishes, 4 432 Sabertooth viperfishes, 4 421 Sablefishes, 5 179, 5 182, 5 183, 5 184, 5 186-187 Saccogaster melanomycter, 5 18 Saccopharyngidae, 4 271, 4 272 Saccopharyngiformes, 4 11, 4 271-276, 4 273 Saccopharyngoidei, 4 271 Saccopharynx spp., 4 271, 4 274, 4 275 Saccopharynx ampullaceus. See Gulper eels Saddleback gunnels, 5 312, 5 314, 5 316 Saeed, B., 5 67 Safina, C., 5 418 Sailfin dories. See Buckler dories Sailfin plunderfishes, 5 324, 5 325...

Other Common Names

German Brauner Borstenzahndoktor Japanese Sazanamihagi. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS The body is compressed and disc-like, with a venomous, scalpel-like caudal spine on each side of the caudal peduncle. The caudal fin is lunate. There are eight spines and 27-31 soft rays in the dorsal fin, three spines and 24-28 soft rays in the anal fin, and 17 (sometimes 16) soft rays in the pectoral fin. Adult coloration varies from dark gray to orangish brown. Can change color temporarily from dark brown to...

Info

See Nassau groupers Evermannellidae. See Sabertooth fishes Evistias acutirostris. See Striped boarfishes Scorpaeniformes, 5 157, 5 163-164, 5 179 Eptatretus burgeri. See Japanese hagfishes Eptatretus stoutii. See Pacific hagfishes Erpetoichthys calabaricus. See Reedfishes Esperlans. See California smoothtongues Estivation cycle, 4 202, 4 203, 4 206 Etheostoma caeruleum. See Rainbow darters Etheostoma nigrum. See Johnny darters Etheostoma olmstedi. See Tessellated darters...

Habitat

The Cyprinodontiformes occupy such diverse habitats that it is impossible to characterize them in a simple way. A small number of species occur in marine environments, some are brackish water species, and others are even found in hypersaline waters. Most species, however, inhabit freshwater. Many species, particularly in the genera Aphanius and Cyprin-odon, are found in hypothermal environments at temperatures close to their upper lethal limit. Many Rivulus are semiter-restrial and may occur...

Giant snakehead

Ophicephalus micropeltes Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831, Java. English Red snakehead Khmer Trey chhdaur Laotian Pa do Malay Ikan toman Thai Pla chado Vietnamese Ca bong. Length 51.2 in (130 cm) one of the largest snakeheads. Has very small scales (LL 83-106) patch of small scales near underside tip of lower jaw large canine-like teeth on upper and lower jaws. Juveniles have vivid black horizontal stripe above and below a bright orange to red stripe running head to tail. Coloration...

Feeding Ecology And Diet

Feeds mainly on hard-shelled invertebrates and occasionally fish. Wolf-eels grab their prey with their enlarged canines and crush it with their rear molars. Known prey consists of crabs, clams, mussels, sea urchins, sand dollars, snails, and abalone. A population of wolf eels at the head of the Monterey submarine canyon in California has relied on sand dollars at least seasonally, a food presumably rather low in nutrition for its bulk. Free-swimming juveniles eat plankton and...

Evolution and systematics

The approximately 1,400 species of mail-cheeked fishes (order Scorpaeniformes), first grouped together by the naturalist Georges Cuvier, are united because they share a single remarkable feature. This feature, the suborbital stay, is a bony strut that connects the bones under the eye with the front of the gill cover. This character is found in all scor-paeniforms except the Australian prowfishes (Pataecidae). The gapers (Champsodontidae) are sometimes included in the Scorpaeniformes, but here...

Distribution

Gobioid fishes are common in the tropics, but may also be found in subtropical and temperate regions. They are absent from polar regions. Most of the species are found in marine coastal waters and in estuaries. They are usually in shallow waters, although some species have been found at depths of about 2,625 ft (800 m). About one-tenth of the known species inhabit fresh waters, including the Orinoco and Amazon River basins in South America, and the Nile, Niger, and Congo River basins in Africa....

M

See Eastern freshwater cods Maccullochella macquariensis. See Trout cods Maccullochella peelii. See Murray cods Mary River cods Maccullochella peelii mariensis. See Mary River cods Maccullochella peelii peelii. See Murray cods Mackerel icefishes, 5 323, 5 324, 5 326-327 Mackerel sharks, 4 131-142, 4134 behavior, 4 132-133 conservation, 4 133 distribution, 4 132 evolution, 4 131-132 feeding ecology, 4 133 habitats, 4 132 humans and, 4 133 physical characteristics, 4 132...

Invemar

Smith Institute of Ichthyology Eugene K. Balon, PhD University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario, Canada George Benz, PhD Tennessee Aquarium Research Institute and Tennessee Aquarium Chattanooga, Tennessee Ralf Britz, PhD Smithsonian Institution Washington, D.C. University of New Orleans, Lakefront Jos I. Castro, PhD Mote Marine Laboratory Sarasota, Florida Bruce B. Collette, PhD National Marine Fisheries Systematics Laboratory and National Museum of Natural History Washington, D.C. Roy...

Giant gourami

Osphronemus goramy Lacepede, 1801, Mauritius China Jakarta Batavia , Java, Indonesia. Osphronemus goramy Trichogaster leeri French Gourami g ant German Riesengurami Spanish Gurami gigante, gurami comestible. Largest species of anabantoids up to 23.6 in (60 cm) and 19.8 lb (9 kg). High body, laterally compressed. Lateral line not interrupted and nearly straight. Dorsal fin has 11-14 spines and 12-14 soft rays. Anal fin has 10-11 spines and 20-23 soft rays. First soft ray of pelvic fin is very...

Glossary

Adipose fin A small, fleshy fin without rays. Afferent Conducting impulses toward nerve centers or blood toward the gills. Compare efferent. Agonistic behavior Aggressive and submissive interaction between individuals of the same species. Albinistic Displaying the characteristics of an albino an organism that has deficient pigmentation and white, colorless, or translucent skin and hair. Amphidromous Regular migration between fresh and seawater at different stages in their development. Ampulla A...

Vda

Wilhelm Meise Chief Curator, Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany Dr. Joachim Messtorff Field Station of the Federal Fisheries Research Institute Bremerhaven, Germany Dr. Marian Mlynarski Professor, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute for Systematic and Experimental Zoology Cracow, Poland Dr. Walburga Moeller Nature Museum Hamburg, Germany Dr. H.C.Erna Mohr Curator (retired), Zoological State Institute and Museum Hamburg, Germany Dr. Karl-Heinz Moll...

Siamese fighting fish

Betta splendens Regan, 1910, Menam River Mae Nam Chao Phraya , Thailand. English Betta French Combatant, combattant du Siam German Siamesischer Kampffisch Spanish Combatiente siam s. Up to 2.4 in (6 cm). Elongate cylindrical body, dorsal fin short with one to two spines and seven to 10 soft rays. Anal fin is long with two to five spines and 21-26 soft rays, caudal fin rounded. First soft ray of pelvic fin elongated. Sexually dimorphic males have larger fins and a brighter coloration, females...

California tonguefish

Aphoristia atricauda Jordan and Gilbert, 1880, San Diego Bay, California. French Langue californienne Spanish Lengua de perra. Small, sinistral flatfish with the characteristic tonguefish teardrop-shaped body terminating posteriorly in a point without a distinct caudal fin. The small head has a pointed snout. The small eyes are set close together. A small, subterminal mouth with small teeth best developed on the jaws of the blind side. Dorsal and anal fins are conjoined with the caudal fin,...

Ragfish

When the juvenile ragfish was first described by Lockington in 1880, there was apparently a premonition of the difficulty in placing this species into any existing taxonomic groupings. Indeed, the name of the single icosteoid representative, Icosteus aenigmaticus, means puzzling fish with yielding bones. Lockington hypothesized the ragfish's probable relationship to the blennioid fishes. He questionably assigned it to the family Blenniidae (the blennies) but stated that it probably should be in...

Blennies

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Blennioidei Number of families 6 Photo A mimic blenny (Aspidontus taeniatus) peers out from a wormhole in coral near the Florida Islands, Solomon Islands. (Photo by Fred Mc-Connaughey Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The suborder Blennioidei has a long and convoluted history of classification, with a variety of families historically being moved into and out of the suborder. Stability finally was established for the suborder when...

G

Gadella maraldi, 5 27 Gadiculus argenteus, 5 28 Gadidae, 5 25-30, 5 27 Gadiformes, 5 25-40, 5 27, 5 31 behavior, 5 29 conservation status, 5 29-30 distribution, 5 26-28 evolution, 5 25 feeding ecology, 5 29 habitats, 5 28-29 humans and, 5 30 physical characteristics, 5 25-26 reproduction, 5 29 species of, 5 32-40 taxonomy, 5 25 Gadinae, 5 25 Gadomus spp., 5 27 Gadopsidae. See Blackfishes Gadopsis spp. See Blackfishes Gadopsis marmoratus. See River blackfishes Gadus spp., 5 27 Gadus morhua. See...

Southern codicefshes

Antarctic Ice Fish

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Notothenioidei Number of families 8 Photo A scuba diver observes a blackfin icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus as it swims off the coast of Signy Island, one of the South Orkney Islands near the Antarctic Peninsula. Photo by Rick Price Corbis. Reproduced by permission. Photo A scuba diver observes a blackfin icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus as it swims off the coast of Signy Island, one of the South Orkney Islands near the Antarctic Peninsula. Photo...

Weeverfishes and relatives

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Trachinoidei Number of families 13 Photo A four-spined sandperch Parapercis tetra-cantha in the Balayan Bay of Luzon Island in the Philippines. Photo by Fred McMonnaughey Photo Researchers. Reproduced by permission. Photo A four-spined sandperch Parapercis tetra-cantha in the Balayan Bay of Luzon Island in the Philippines. Photo by Fred McMonnaughey Photo Researchers. Reproduced by permission. A group of fishes referred to as the trachinoids was...

Joturus Pichardi Mitochondrial

Mugiloidei Development and Relationships. In Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes, edited by H. G. Moser, W. J. Richards, D. M. Cohen, M. P. Fahay, A. W. Kendall, Jr., and S. L. Richardson. Lawrence, KS American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 1984. Harrison, I. J. Mugilidae. In Guta FAO para la Identification de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca Pacifico Centro-Oriental, edited by W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K E. Carpenter, and V. H. Niem. Vol....

Eelpouts and relatives

Sea Snail Eating Brittle Star

Class Actinopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Zoarcoidei Number of families 9 Photo An ocean pout Zoarces americanus in the Gulf of Maine. Photo by Andrew J. Martinez Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission. The zoarcoids, except for a few cryptic tidepool species, are a relatively obscure group of fishes of unverified affinity. On the basis of overall shape, fin structures, and position, and their ecological preference for living on sea bottoms in cold water, the most primitive...