The Truth About Fat Burning Foods

Metabolic Cooking Fat Loss Cookbook

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Nutrition And Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

Diets high in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The largest, population-based, case-control study was undertaken in the United States, and demonstrated that dietary fat was significantly associated with adenocarcinoma, although not squamous-cell carcinoma, of the esophagus (80).

Background And Relevant Pharmacokinetics

One of the two fats identified as being essential for humans to consume is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA or 18 3n-3) which, due to the position of its first double bond, is classified as an omega-3 essential fatty acid (n-3 EFA). Although mammals have the ability to introduce double bonds into most positions of the fatty acid chain in fat metabolism, therefore creating a variety of unsaturated metabolites, they lack the capacity to insert double bonds at the n-3 and n-6 position. Consequently, linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which already have the double bond at the n-3 or n-6 position, respectively, are considered essential and must be consumed in the diet. When the EFAs are consumed in this precursor state they follow a pathway of further elongation and desaturation via the action of delta-6- and delta-5-desaturase until they form the 'active' fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20 5 n-3) (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22 6 n-3).

Prevention Of Morbidity And Mortality Of Cardiovascular Disease

For over 25 years, fish and fish oils have been linked to cardiovascular health. This association was first recognised when significantly lower death rates from acute myocardial infarction (Ml) were found among Greenland's Inuit population, despite only moderate differences between the Inuits' blood cholesterol levels and those of other populations (Holub 2002). A high dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake in the form of marine mammals (seal, whale) and various fish were thought responsible for the protective effect (Bang et al 1980). In 1989, results from the first large, randomised, clinical trial investigating the effects of fatty fish consumption on survival and risk of secondary Ml confirmed a link to cardiovascular health (Burr et al 1989). The DART (Diet and Reinfarction study) found a modest intake of 2-3 portions weekly of fatty fish reduced mortality in men who had previously experienced a Ml and produced a relative reduction in total mortality of 29 during the 2-year follow-up,...

Elevated Triglyceride Levels

DHA and EPA supplementation significantly reduces triglyceride levels and is used as sole therapy in cases of elevation or as adjunctive therapy with cholesterol-lowering medication when indicated. According to Din et al, omega-3 fatty acids reduce triglyceride concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, with intakes of about 4 g day lowering serum triglycerides by 25-30 (Din et al 2004). Overall, it appears that the smallest amount of omega-3 PUFA needed to lower serum triglyceride levels significantly is approximately 1 g day, as provided by a fish diet, or as little as0.21 gEPAand0.12g DHA day for those with hyperlipidaemia (Weber & Raederstorff 2000).

Chemical Components

Flaxseed oil contains several types of fatty acids (FAs). It contains a high concentration of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), ranging from 40 to 60 , and is the most concentrated plant source of omega-3 FA identified to date. FSO also contains unsaturated FAs, such as linolenic, linolenic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid. Linoleic acid (LA or C18 2n-6) and oleic acid each contribute 15 to the total FA content of the oil. Due to the range of FA present, it contains precursors for the omega-3, -6 and -9 families. FSO may also contain varying amounts of the lignan, secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), which is a precursor to enterodiol and enterolactone. acid (LA), common in Western cultures, inhibits both the uptake of ALA and its conversion to long-chain metabolites. An interesting study conducted in 1998, which used radioactively labelled ALA, showed that a diet high in omega-6 fats reduced conversion by 40-50 (Gerster 1998). This adds weight to the argument that the ratios of FAs...

Dietary Fat and Fiber

Many case-control studies of fat consumption and breast cancer have found only small differences between cases and controls, generally no larger than the differences in total caloric consumption. However, Howe and colleagues68 combined 12 large case-control studies representing populations with a wide range of dietary habits and underlying rates of breast cancer to study the diet-breast cancer relationship. They found that the breast cancer risk of post-menopausal women was positively associated with both total fat intake (RR 1.46 for 100 g day, p 0.0002) and saturated fat intake (RR 1.57 for highest quintile of intake, p < 0.0001). Nonetheless, cohort studies that have examined total fat, saturated fat, or vegetable fat69-72 have found little or no difference in breast cancer risk over a wide range of fat intakes.73

Keeping Obesity Prevention Firmly Environment Based

One of the risks to developing a momentum for environment-led obesity prevention is that obesity as an issue gets combined with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and then most of the funding and efforts are channeled into clinical interventions and or mass-media strategies. While the rationale for such clumping is readily defendable and these strategies are important, a primary focus on improving the environments for healthy food and physical activity choices is needed if population-based prevention is to be a priority.

Schools and Other Educational Settings

There are many different models of school food programs depending on the school food services offered (59). Interventions may be in the form of new programs or enhanced existing programs, stand-alone programs, or part of a wider health-promoting schools concept (45). Whatever form they take, they need to be funded to achieve a high enough dose of intervention and achieve a wide enough reach, particularly to schools in disad-vantaged areas. The major elements of a school-based programs are a school food and nutrition policy (including the types of foods and drinks available and promoted at school through the school food service or vending machines) training and resources for teachers and food service staff guidelines for offering healthy food and drink choices encouraging healthy options in food brought from home and curriculum content on food and nutrition.

Invigorating V7inegar Tonic

Herbalist Susun Weed, author of Wise Woman Herbal and founder of the Wise Woman Center in Woodstock, New York, uses herbal vinegars to boost the mineral count in her diet. Many herbs and weeds are extremely high in minerals, she says. And ordinary apple cider vinegar dissolves the minerals from plant tissues and puts them into a form that your body can assimilate. Many of these plants have excellent nutritive qualities beyond adding minerals to the diet, Susun adds. For example, purslane contains more omega-3 fatty acids than any other known plant.

Preventing Cardiovascular Disease

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigating the effects of a quercetin-containing supplement on plasma quercetin status, risk factors for heart disease and serum platelet fatty acid levels was conducted on 27 healthy men and women with cholesterol levels of 4.0-7.2 mmol L (Conquer et al 1998). The subjects consumed a quercetin-containing supplement (1 g quercetin day) or rice flour placebo for 28 days. Quercetin intakes were approximately 50-fold greater than dietary intakes previously associated with lower coronary heart disease mortality in epidemiologic studies. Plasma quercetin concentrations were approximately 23-fold greater in subjects consuming the quercetin capsules than in the placebo group. Quercetin supplementation did not alter serum total, LDL- or HDL-cholesterol or triglyceride levels, or other cardiovascular disease or thrombogenic risk factors such as platelet thromboxane B2 production, blood pressure or resting heart rate. This is in contrast to a previous...

Antecedents Behavior Consequences

Finally, since environmental consequences are believed to play an important role in influencing behavior, behavioral programs attempt to develop new reinforcement contingencies. Behavior therapists use reinforcers, such as praise and positive feedback, to encourage patients to adopt new healthier eating and exercise behaviors and teach patients to reinforce themselves for appropriate behavior change. Some behavioral programs also include more formal reinforcement systems, such as contingency procedures where patients deposit money with the therapist and earn back portions of their money contingent on behavior change (9,10).

Geneenvironment interaction

Of intermediary metabolism have been measured. The relationship between the Pro12Ala variant in the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) and the ratio of dietary polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat (P S ratio) has been studied and there is some evidence for a gene-nutrient interaction in a number of large studies (Lindi et al., 2002 Hara et al., 2000 Meirhaeghe et al., 1998). Evidence for gene-exercise interactions have been found for variants in lipoprotein lipase in the HERITAGE Family Study and for the Gly16Arg variant in the beta (2)-adrenergic receptor in French and UK population-based cohorts (Meirhaeghe et al., 1999 2001). These studies, although few in number, emphasize the difficulty of examining the effect of common polymorphisms in the absence of complete data on non-genetic exposures, and may explain in part the heterogeneity of findings in previous studies.

Dietary Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

There are at least seven major dietary macro- or micronutrients that are under intense scrutiny currently as dietary risk or protective factors (Table 15.1). Prominent among these is dietary fat or some component of fat (e.g., saturated fat), which first received attention as a mechanism to possibly explain the low risk in native Asian populations and the apparent rapid shift in risk upon migration of Asian populations to the United States. There are suggestive data that increased fat consumption is associated with higher circulating testosterone levels, providing a possible mechanism for a fat-prostate cancer relation

Autoimmune Prone Mice as a Model of Chronic Inflammation and Heart Disease

Nutrients serve as an excellent means to delay the onset of heart disease (Osiecki, 2004). The omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil are well-established anti-inflammatory nutrients (Fernandes and Jolly, 1998). Important in heart disease, dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to suppress the expression of both ICAM-1 (De Caterina et al., 2000) and VCAM-1 (De Caterina et al., 1995) in endothelial cells. Proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-a and IFN-y are also found at sites of inflammation, and their levels can be reduced by dietary omega-3 fatty acid feeding in MRL-lpr mice (Venkatraman and Chu, 1999). We have specifically found that dietary omega-3 fatty acids can decrease IFN-y and TNF-a levels associated with nephritis in the kidneys of (NZBxNZW)F1 (B W) mice. Furthermore, dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce IFN-y production in T-lymphocytes found in the Omega-3 fatty acids can be derived from many food sources. Flaxseed oil, enriched in linolenic acid, and...

Ingredients and Supplies

2 handfuls each of fresh plantain leaf, calendula flowers Calendula officinalis), St.-John's-wort flowers (Hypericum perforatum), and black cohosh leaf (C.imicifiuja racetnosa) Double boiler Extra-virgin olive oil Strainer To infuse oil with Solomon's seal root, repeat steps 2 through 9 of the directions for Gardeners' Hand Cream, using a 4-inch piece of root, cut into small pieces, and 1 cup of extra-virgin olive oil.

Future Directions

While past and more recent DOHMH programs illustrate the potential for urban departments of health to contribute to a healthier physical environment, many aspects of the physical environment remain to be addressed. Among the initiatives being considered by DOHMH are building on a successful pilot program to expand the use of integrated pest management for roach and rodent control in public and private housing, expanding availability of healthy food choices, encouraging the use of stairwells instead of elevators to promote increased physical activity, and enhancing enforcement of no-idling regulations for school buses and other diesel-powered vehicles.

Cardiovascular Disease

In 1999, results from the large GISSI trial were published, which produced conflicting results. The trial, involving 11,324 patients who had recently survived a Ml (< 3 months) investigated the effects of three different treatment protocols with placebo 1 g omega-3 fatty acid day, 300 IU synthetic vitamin E day, fish oils plus vitamin E day, or placebo. The four groups were observed for nearly 4 years for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Results showed that the fish oil treatment groups had significantly decreased combined end-points of death, non- Vitamin E 1332

Sampling in Aging Research

As an example, take a seemingly simple research question. Suppose a researcher aims to detect the contribution of aging and diet to body mass index (BMI). One approach might be to measure height and weight in a sample of subjects believed to be representative of the general population at different ages, and then to test the association between age and BMI and report the result, seeking to explain the proposed association using age differences in dietary data. These three measures (age, diet, and BMI) are open to confounding by quite distinct processes. First, as set out earlier, the structure of a general population (from which the sample is drawn) is made up of cohorts, each from successive birth epochs, each exposed over time to changes in food quality and availability. Younger subjects may have preferences for, and easy access to, energy-dense foods, rich in saturated fats but nutrient-poor, being depleted in fruit or vegetable vitamins and fiber. The older cohorts may have had...

Antioxidants CellSupporting Agents

A number of theories as to what causes PD at the cellular level include oxidative stress and free radical formation, mitochondrial impairment, intracellular protein clumping, inflammation, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and excitotoxicity (5). Many of the prescribed supplements, minerals, and vitamins by alternative practitioners are based upon these theories and the belief or hope that cellular function will be restored and or future brain cell injury prevented with their use. Currently, there is little if any scientific study to support the use of most of these supplements in the treatment of PD and it is critical to acknowledge that their use specifically for the treatment of PD is based upon theory only and not upon evidence-based clinical research. Despite the lack of research supporting their use for PD, some of these, in particular, the antioxidants that control potentially damaging free radicals or support mitochondrial function may hold the greatest promise for finding a...

Product Example Golden Rice

The inventors, however, realised that further development and marketing of the GM rice would be impossible without the help of a commercial partner. They signed an agreement with Syngenta to provide the necessary technology and support, for free, to the needy people in developing countries. In return, the company would able to explore commercial opportunities for the sale of golden rice into the expanding market for healthy foods in more developed countries. Syngenta would also be providing regulatory, advisory and research expertise to assist in making golden rice readily available among developing nations.

Iiiobesogenic And Leptogenic Environments

A central concept to emerge from considering these models is that, while environments are external to the person, they have a powerful influence on the person's behaviors and thus energy balance and obesity. The term obesogenic environments can be defined as ''the sum of influences that the surroundings, opportunities or conditions of life have on promoting obesity in individuals or populations'' (19). By contrast, leptogenic environments would promote healthy food choices and encourage regular physical activity. The obesogenic environment is synonymous with other terms which have been coined such as the toxic environment (28) or pathoenvironment (15), but a term for the other end of the spectrum (i.e., the leptogenic environment) may also be of value in defining the direction of desired environmental change.

Antithrombotic And Antiplatelet

Dietary omega-3 EFAs produce a state of enhanced anti-aggregatory and anti-adhesive platelet activity. This is achieved by inducing increased production of the platelet-anti-aggregatory substance prostacyclin l3 and suppressing synthesis of the chemotactic platelet adhesion-promoting substance leukotriene B4 (Kinsella 1987). In animal models of arterial thrombosis, fish-oil-enriched diets have been shown to have an antithrombotic effect however, there is evidence suggesting that this is most likely to occur when associated with reduced saturated fat intake (Hornstra 1989).

Models of Immune Function in Aging

The most prevalent rodent models used in aging research are relatively healthy long-lived rats and mice and shortlived mice. The short-lived mice typically spontaneously develop a particular disease or are genetically altered. This review focuses on the most prevalent disease model, the autoimmune-prone mouse, to study the impact of diet on aging. The benefit of these mice is that their life span is half that of the long-lived strains, allowing for data to be generated faster. Specifically, evidence showing the beneficial effects of feeding calorie restriction, omega-3 fatty acids, and combining calorie restriction with omega-3 fatty acid feeding is discussed. Overall, the published data support the observation that the combination of calorie restriction and omega-3 fatty acid feeding is the most beneficial at delaying the onset of autoimmune disease in mice. In order to properly extrapolate this data to humans, the differences in TandB cell immunology between humans and rodents are...

Neurological Effects

Alzheimer's dementia A 2003 prospective study conducted with a random sample of 81 5 older volunteers (aged 65-94 years) who initially were unaffected by Alzheimer's dementia (AD) found that consumption of fish once weekly was associated with a 60 reduced risk of developing the disease compared with those who rarely or never ate fish, after adjustment for age and other risk factors (Morris et al 2003). A review of the evidence prepared for the US Department of Health and Human Services in 2005 concluded that there is a significant correlation between fish consumption and reduced incidence of AD. Total n-3 EFA and DHA consumption correlated with this risk reduction however, ALA and EPA did not (Maclean et al 2005). A recent Cochrane review came to a similar conclusion and reported that there is a growing body of evidence from biological, observational and epidemiological studies to suggest a protective effect of omega-3 PUFAs against dementia however, further research is required...

Minority Groups And The Urban Environment

To obtain relief from harsh living, working conditions and stressful environment induced by the social structures and unequal distribution of resources. In addition, there is also a strong association between availability of these products, specifically alcohol consumption (Rabow and Watts, 1983 1984). Blacks and latinos are more likely to hold stressful jobs and live in impoverished communities. To complement that, it is well known that blacks and latinos have been targeted by these industries, and in fact, over 80 of billboards in the U.S. contain advertisements targeted to blacks and latinos with a large majority placed in the neighborhoods in which these groups live (Hacker, et al., 1987 Maxwell and Jacobson, 1989). Fast food restaurants and convenience stores follow a similar pattern of product placement and advertisement in urban cities. Morland and colleagues (2002a and 2002b) found a greater number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores in black neighborhoods when...

Competencies for Urban Clinicians

Diabetes, influenza), characterize significant disparities in health within urban populations, and explain the roles of health providers in reducing such disparities, identify sources of formal and informal social support for health promotion and disease management for their patients and their families, find community resources to assist their patients to improve their health, connect their clinical practice to other levels of intervention that improve community health (e.g., support community campaigns to increase access to healthy food and safe places to exercise), and advocate for health and other policies that will improve the health of their patients.


Urban residents living in impoverished areas often have excellent neighborhood access to liquor stores and pawn shops but poor access to markets selling affordable healthy food. Notably, few older urban adults meet dietary recommendations (Tangney, 2000) for grains, vegetables, and dairy products. Approximately 4050 of older adults are undernourished. Possibly due to high poverty rates, older adults in cities, particularly in Southern states, have higher rates of hunger and food insecurity than other older adults (Nord, 2002).


The most important determinants of colorectal cancer risk are age and family history. In addition, environmental factors--such as a diet rich in saturated fats, high in red meats, and low in fiber or fruits and vegetables appear to increase the risk for colorectal cancer. NSAID use is associated with a decreased risk for colorectal cancer in observational studies. NSAIDs decrease COX-2 levels. Clinical trials in individuals with FAP documented decreased development of adenomas from chemoprevention by COX-2 inhibitors. Therefore, chemoprevention with COX-2 inhibitors is likely to be an effective approach for decreasing risk for colorectal cancer, particularly in individuals with FAP, but possibly for the broader population as well. Interactions between genetic and environmental factors are likely to create subpopulations of individuals at much higher risk for colo-rectal cancer development. Further studies to identify and reliably estimate the risks for these subgroups are under way at...


Globalization has also resulted in a reduction in the availability of time, which may contribute to the use of both processed foods and foods prepared outside of the home becoming a greater part of the diet (Bell and Valentine, 1997). In addition, because processed food is less recognizable as a particular organic product, it may increase reliance on processed foods and reduce the likelihood of preparing foods in the home. Food insecurity can be quite high in cities. Few inner-city dwellers have access to garden space that is sufficient to generate a substantial amount of edible produce. Types of stores and store inventory are also an issue. Healthy food choices are often less available in urban settings (LaVeist and Wallace, 2000 Morland, et al., 2002 Sloane, et al., 2003).

Spice Applications

As consumers continue to seek tasty and healthy foods that are easy to prepare, unique seasonings introduced through marinades, rubs, glazes, or as sprinkle-on seasonings are becoming the hottest new trends. These marinades and dry seasonings can be used to create a variety of flavors and textures and to add convenience for consumers through easy-to-prepare or ready-to-eat products.


One of the recognized risk factors for colon cancer is the Western diet high in saturated fat but low in fiber and antioxidants. The protective effects of fiber and calcium have turned out to be not as important as the protective effects of antioxidants. Physical inactivity is a stronger risk factor than obesity in colon cancer. Alcohol use increases colon cancer risk by about twofold, but smoking does not seem to be linked to colon cancer. Patients with a long-standing history of inflammatory bowel disease have an incremental risk of developing colon cancer of 9 at 10 years, 20 at 20 years, and more than 35 at 30 years. Patients with pancolitis are at higher risk than those with segmental colitis. Patients with a history of ulcerative colitis of more than 8 years' duration should undergo surveillance colonoscopy every 6 to 12 months for the detection of dysplastic changes or cancerous polyps, which may be technically challenging owing to the infil-trative nature of the cancer....

Behavior Therapy

High-risk situations that promote incidental eating should be identified. Obese patients can learn to shop carefully for healthy foods, keep high-calorie foods out of the house, limit the times and places of eating, and consciously avoid situations in which overeating occurs.

And Health

Today, the built environment of our urban centers continues to affect public health, though the primary health concerns have shifted from infectious disease to chronic disease, injuries, and crime. Heart disease, asthma, and diabetes are among the leading causes of death and premature disability in the U.S. (National Center for Health Statistics, 2002). These conditions are affected by a sedentary life style, diet, and poor air quality (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention, 2003) -all factors that are in turn linked with the built environment. For example, with respect to sedentary life-style, there is a growing body of evidence that links physical activity with the structure of our environment and how easy or hard it is to integrate active living into daily life (Frank, et al., 2003 Frumkin, et al., 2004). Diet is also affected by logistical factors such as a lack of access to stores or farmers markets carrying healthy food options (Morland, et al., 2002) and an ease of...

Some Herbal Terms

Use a double boiler to gently warm extra-virgin olive oil and herbs to make an infused oil. Once the oil has cooled, strain it through a piece of cotton muslin to remove the herbs. Twist the muslin to remove as much oil as possible. See Basic Herb-Infused Oil on page 231 for complete instructions. Use a double boiler to gently warm extra-virgin olive oil and herbs to make an infused oil. Once the oil has cooled, strain it through a piece of cotton muslin to remove the herbs. Twist the muslin to remove as much oil as possible. See Basic Herb-Infused Oil on page 231 for complete instructions. Herb-infused oils. To make an herb-infused oil, you'll steep the herbs in the oil, which imbues the oil with the herbs' healing properties. You can use the resulting oil directly on your skin or combined with other ingredients to make salves and creams. Extra-virgin olive oil is the most


The meal schedule should consist of three meals a day with one or two snacks interspersed as well as a snack after dinner. Initial diet should consist of an intake of 35 kcal kg of ideal body weight for most nonunderweight, nonobese patients. Generally a diet consisting of complex carbohydrates (as opposed to simple sugars), soluble fiber, low in fat, while reduced in saturated fats, is recommended.

Dietary Patterns

In factor analysis, dietary data are obtained by recall methods, and foods are sorted into major nutrient groups. These nutrient groups are then factor-analyzed using principal component methods (with or without rotation). The major factors produced are inspected for content validity and named accordingly, such that a factor that comprises high energy intake, saturated fats, and alcohol might be labeled high risk, where another factor comprising low energy, fruit and vegetables, unprocessed oily fish, and so on might be labeled prudent (Montonen et al., 2005). These factors are consistently derived in samples from diverse Western populations and have proven to be useful in understanding the contributions of diet rather than specific nutrients to risks of disease.

Risk Factors

Overeating, a sedentary lifestyle, smoking, and diets high in saturated and trans-fats and cholesterol and low in whole grains and vegetables increase the risk of stroke ( Conversely, diets low in calories and bad fats and high in vegetables and whole grains, regular exercise, and abstinence from smoking reduce the risk of stroke. These factors may promote or inhibit the pathological processes involved in atherosclerosis. In addition, dietary restriction and physical exercise may protect neurons against ischemic damage, enhance neurogenesis, and improve functional outcome by stimulating the production of neurotrophic factors in brain cells (Mattson et al., 2002).


Nutmeg butter, which consists of fixed oil and volatile oil, is orange red to reddish brown and has the consistency of butter at room temperature. It contains trimyristin (70 ), fats (4 ), resins (13 ), and other constituents (2 ). The fats are mainly saturated (90 ) with 10 unsaturated fats.


The first meta-analysis was of 31 placebo-controlled trials involving 1356 subjects and detected a statistically significant dose-response effect on blood pressure when studies were grouped by omega-3 fatty acid dose -1.3 -0.7 mmHg at doses < 3 g day, -2.9 -1.6 mmHg at 3.3-7 g day, and -8.1 -5.8 mmHg at 15 g day (Morris et al 1993). The hypotensive effect was strongest in hypertensive subjects and those with clinically evident atherosclerotic disease or hypercholesterolemia, whereas no effect was detected in healthy subjects. Some researchers propose that the potentially cardiotoxic effects of MeHg is countered by the presence of the omega-3 oils also found within fish, and interestingly there is some overlap between those species with the highest concentrations of both (Bambrick & Kjellstrom 2004). However, there is also concern that the converse is true and MeHg could counteract the health-giving benefits of fish.

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